|LEARNING and TEACHING GUIDE|
|"WORD of ADVICE: History is often as controversial a subject as there is in American society. A person may be heroic to some people but villainous to somebody else. Controversy is to be expected when teaching New Mexico history. No matter what material is used to teach New Mexico history, someone will find it “controversial.” The teacher’s goal should be to have students study both sides of any controversy and let students make their own decision as to what to believe. The teacher's opinion should not be forced on students. It is also recommended that an author's bias, pro or con, be discussed openly whenever possible."||
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QUESTIONS (PDF format)
All items in the ACTIVITIES—QUESTIONS—ANSWERS sections are from the State adopted NEW MEXICO: A BRIEF MULTI-HISTORY by Rubén Sálaz Márquez.
The professional lesson plans provided herein for use with New Mexico: A Brief Multi-History are extensive by necessity because they are intended to enable teachers to select materials for their level of students. The intent is to have students Read-Write-Speak on New Mexico history, not the mere memorization of “factoids.”
Do not become overwhelmed by the amount of material available for teaching New Mexico history in these lesson plans. Obviously, no single teacher will use all the strategies provided below because there would not be enough time in the school year. Their purpose is to enable the teacher to exercise SELECTION. By judicious use of this guide, specific lesson plans/strategies/ideas can be utilized by professionals at the elementary, mid-school, high school, or college level. For example, for the one semester of New Mexico History required for high school graduation, the Profile Biography sections, 39 items in the STATEHOOD section alone, could suffice for the semester because 20th century New Mexico history is reflected in these biographies. If that is the choice, it should not be forgotten that the present can also be used to illuminate the past, and vice versa. Additionally, expect controversy because differing opinions in class can lead to topics that should be discussed/debated using documented evidence and sound logic. Understanding the New Mexican present and past is crucial to recognizing New Mexican realities, good or bad. The teacher should emphasize that ideas, not the person articulating them, are being discussed.
Use of the biographies are only one small part of lesson plan possibilities that could be selected by the teacher. For example, basics for the 9th grade course could be (1) Vocabulary building, (2) Biography as History, (3) specific, teacher assigned research topics, (4) and learning games like Jeopardy or Password.
. As you will recognize, these lesson plans were created by a career classroom professional. They will not be construed as “boring.” Compare them in scope, creativity, potential for productivity, etc., to any others provided with any other textbook.
Every effort has been made to organize these materials to facilitate their use in the classroom. Do not be overwhelmed by the amount of material presented in New Mexico: A Brief Multi-History or in the lesson plans below. It would be good to review all strategies provided but it is not necessary to download the entire “Learning and Teaching Guide.” A good starting strategy would be to make a copy of the Table of Contents for the
ACTIVITIES—QUESTIONS—ANSWERS segments then decide what would be appropriate for your students. Copy those files and structure them for use in your particular classroom. Other items can be copied as necessary during the school year.
Feel free to contact the author by email: Saljustin@msn.com
For the Teacher: ON CREATING TESTS for students:
1. New Mexico: A Brief Multi-History is intended as a “hands on approach” to studying NM history. Students should be assigned to “Read—Write—Speak” on NM subjects.
EXAMPLE: The student will be assigned a specific subject, s/he will research it in the Multi-History, write up a report on it, then deliver an oral presentation on that subject to the class. The student will be graded on the written as well as oral report, by the teacher.
2. Vocabulary: The words provided in the ACTIVITIES section can be used for testing, spelling and meaning.
3. Question and Answer instruments can be created or taken verbatim from “Name the Event” and from “Biography: Who??” sections below.
EXAMPLE: Who was the driving force behind the creation of Taos Ski Valley? [Ernie Blake (Ernest Block)]
EXAMPLE: Who was selected to serve as President of Highlands University in Las Vegas, NM, in 2004? [Manny Aragón]
4. Matching: This form of testing is provided below beginning with the 20th Century.
5. Strategies: These sections below lend themselves to testing on the basis of participation (reading out loud, panel discussions, debates), quality of student’s notebook, written and oral reports, creativity in puzzles, oral representations of NM personalities.
6. PASSWORD: Three clues (oral or written) can be given by the teacher and students must come up with the proper answer.
EXAMPLE: granted in 1920// for women// suffragists//
RESPONSE: right to VOTE
7. JEOPARDY: The items can be provided by the teacher (written or oral) to the class.
EXAMPLE: These institutions cater (1920) to people with tuberculosis and can soon be found throughout NM. [“Sanatoria”]
8. Fill in the Blank: Items from “Identify, Define, Explain” can be created by having students fill in the necessary information.
EXAMPLE: The __________ is founded (1980) at UNM by Dr. John Kessell. [Vargas Project]
(Let us know what other innovative testing devices you might have come up with so we can share them with other teachers.)
INDEX for QUESTIONS
I. Name the Event
III. Biography: Who??
Kessell, John L. (p. 571)
1. Assessing Student Readiness //Using the INDEX
2. Reading aloud
3. Create a notebook
4. Select a Governor
5. Pick a Number
6. Create a crossword puzzle
7. Unscramble the words
8. Drill NM FACTS
9. Reporting Live!
10. Select a PERSONALITY
1. Panel Discussion
3. Let’s play New Mexico TIC-TAC-TOE
1. Most Advanced reports/discussions
I. NAME THE EVENT
Instructions (This activity is the information used in the MATCHING exercises below):
1. For this activity an event will be considered as an incident, a happening, an occurrence or action from the history of New Mexico.
2. The teacher can ask these questions of the class or a select group of students.
3. Student teams (3 or 4 to a team) may be formed to compete against each other.
a. Two students from the rest of the class will ask questions of each team member, rotating questions from one team to another so as to be fair to both teams.
b. The teacher will be the judge as to correctness of all answers.
c. After getting ten (or any such suitable number) correct answers another team can replace the winning team.
1. What happened with the well known troop of the 9th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers in 1900? [They left NM, page 403.]
2. Name the African-American town founded in NM in 1901. [Blackdom, page 408.]
3. Who was th founder of Blackdom? [Francis Boyer, 408]
4. Who is credited with discovering the Carlsbad Caverns? [Jim White, 408]
5. How did J. Francisco Chávez die? [Murdered by unknown parties, 411]
6. When was the Alvarado Hotel completed? [1905, 417]
7. Who was responsible for taking away Blue Lake and its lands from the Taos Indians? [President Theodore Roosevelt, 415]
8. How did Sheriff Pat Garrett die? [Shot in the back, 417]
9. Whose biography did José E. Fernández write? [Casimiro Barela, 421]
10. What was the significance of the Rodríguez v. La Cueva Ranch Co. land grant lawsuit? [The State Supreme Court ruled in 1911 that persons targeted by a land grant partition suit must be served legal papers in person; 423]
11. What is the date of NM becoming a State in the American Union? [January 6, 1912; 424]
12. What organization created its first chapter in NM in 1915? [The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 430]
13. Name some of the influential females who came to live in NM.
a. Mabel Dodge (Luhan), 1917
b. Alice Corbin Henderson, 1921
c. Georgia O’Keefe, 1923, 1929
d. Mary Austin, 1924
e. E. Boyd, 1929
14. What festival was reinitiated in 1918? [Santa Fe Fiesta, 437]
15. Who was elected as Director of the Historical Society of New Mexico in 1918? [Ralph Emerson Twitchell, 438]
16. What well known potter began the pottery tradition at San Ildefonso Pueblo? [Santana Peña, 439]
17. What is the name for the movement of health seekers arriving in NM around 1920? [Sanatoria, 443]
18. What institution of higher learning was founded by the Sisters of St. Francis in 1920? [College of St. Joseph on the Río Grande, 443]
19. What right was granted to women in 1920? [The VOTE, 443]
20. What cartoonist was born in Mountain Park in 1921? [Bill Mauldin, 445]
21. What was the effort to separate Indians from their lands without them knowing about it? [Bursum Bill, 445]
22. Who was the first female Secretary of State to serve as Governor when the Governor and Lt. Gov. were out of NM in 1922? [Soledad Chávez Chacón, 447]
23. What Native American ceremonial affair was established in Gallup in 1922? [The Intertribal Indian Ceremonial, 447]
24. What reclamation project was started in 1923? [Middle Río Grande Conservancy District, 448]
26. Whose literary works were published under the title of Obras in 1924? [Felipe M. Chacón, 450]
30. What famous magazine was relocated to Santa Fe in 1925? [La Revista Ilustrada, 451]
31. What popular tourist activity was begun by the Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad in 1925? [Santa Fe Indian Detours, 451]
32. What item did Will Shuster create for the Santa Fe Fiesta? [Zozobra, 452]
33. What famous novel set in NM was published in 1927? [Death Comes for the Archbishop by Willa Cather, 453]
34. What famous political figure was born on May 12, 1918? (Manuel Luján, 459]
35. What school did Concha Ortiz y Pino found in 1929? [The Colonial Hispanic Crafts School, 460]
36. What publishing house was founded in 1929? [UNM Press, 460]
37. What was the great natural disaster of 1929? [The Río Grande flood, 462]
38. What labor leader was accused of being a communist and fired from his job? [Jesús Pallares, 466]
39. What UNM publication was funded in 1931? [The NM Quarterly, 467]
40. What small Pueblo was refounded in 1932? [Pojoaque, 469]
41. Whom did Gov. Tingley appoint to the U.S. Senate upon the accidental death of Senator Bronson Cutting? [Dennis Chávez, 475]
42. What was the name of Nina Otero’s famous book published in 1936? [Old Spain in Our Southwest, 476]
43. What famous NM artist was proclaimed by the Museum of Modern Art in New York as “the discovery of the year” in 1936? [Patrociño Barela, 478]
44. In 1937 Arthur Campa and George I. Sánchez planned the first ever “National Congress of Spanish Speaking People” but why didn’t it take place? [The House Un-American Activities charged Campa and Sánchez with being “radicals and communists” then pressured UNM to withdraw as the site of the conference.]
45. What was cartoonist Bill Mauldin awarded in 1945 and 1959? [Pulitzer Prize]
46. Who authored Forgotten People in 1940? [George I. Sánchez, 491]
47. What basic genealogical work was published in 1954? [Origins of New Mexico Families by Angélico Chávez, 492]
48. What famous Isleta Pueblo leader died in 1940? [Pablo Abeita, 493]
49. Who authored Shadows of the Past in 1941? [Cleofas Jaramillo, 493]
51. What famous NM military unit was shipped to the Philippines in 1941? [200th Coast Artillery, 494]
52. What AFB was established in Alamogordo in 1942? (Holloman, 496)
53. What AFB was established in Clovis? (Cannon, 496)
54. What group of men became famous for their bilingual skills during WW II? [Navajo Code Talkers, 498]
55. What was the name of the top secret program working on developing the atomic bomb? [Manhattan Project, 499]
56. “Internment camps” were populated by what people? [Japanese Americans, 501]
57. Father Flanagan’s “Boys Town” was the model for what institution in NM? [Boys Ranch, 505]
58. Sarafina Tafoya of Santa Clara Pueblo was known for what craft? [Pottery, 507].
59. When was White Sands Missile Range established? [1945; 508]
60. Who was the first woman to be elected (1946) to the national House of Representatives? [Georgia Lusk, 509]
61. Who published (1946) Saints and Saintmakers of New Mexico? [E. Boyd, 509]
62. What woman had a museum created in her honor after her death? [Millicent Rogers, 509]
63. According to Robert Denhardt in The Horse of the Americas, who were the three greatest horsemen in world history? [Arabs, Comanches, Hispanic New Mexicans, 510]
64. What is New Mexico’s most famous UFO occurrence? [Roswell Incident, 510]
65. Who studied the Matachines dance and history then published a book on the subject? [Flavia Waters Champe, 512]
66. What activist from Isleta Pueblo spearheaded the movement to get American Indians the right to vote in 1948? [Miguel Trujillo, 512]
67. What was the first (1948) television station in NM? [KOB-TV, 515]
68. The 1949 strike at Empire Zinc in Hurley inspired the creation of what movie? [“Salt of the Earth,” 517]
69. What design did Lucy Martin Lewis of Acoma use in her pottery? [Mimbres design, 518]
70. What did Paddy Martínez discover in the grants area? [Uranium, 518]
71. What animal became famous after losing its mother in an El Capitán Mountain forest fire? [Smokey Bear, 518]
72. Brother Mathias Barrett founded what order that has spread around the world? [Little Brothers of the Good Shepherd, 519]
73. Name a book written by Aurora Lucero (White-Lea). [Literary Folklore of the Hispanic Southwest, 520]
74. Who wrote We Fed Them Cactus? [Fabiola Cabeza de Baca, 520]
76. Botanists Ray Nakayama and Paul Bosland created (1955) what variety of NM chile? [“Big Jim,” 521]
77. What is the most popular celebration of chile in the USA? [Hatch Chile Festival, 521]
78. Whose biography is the book (1955) Romance of a Little Village Girl? [Cleofas Jaramillo, 521]
79. In 1955 Paul Horgan won the Pulitzer Prize for what book? [Great River, 522]
79. Name the group formed in 1956 by individuals who had portrayed don Diego de Vargas in the Santa Fe Fiesta. [Los Caballeros de Vargas, 524]
80. Name the Museum founded in Mesilla in 1957 by Aurelio and Elizabeth (Fountain) Armendáriz. [Gadsden Museum, 525]
81. Who was the founder (1957) of the Santa Fe Opera? [John Crosby, 525]
82. Who was the last editor (1958) of the Spanish language newspaper El Nuevo Mexicano? [Pedro R. Ortega, 525]
83. What village is considered the center of NM woodcarving? [Córdova, 528]
84. In 1960 what ethnic group in NM is 28% of the population but account for 41.6% of New Mexicans living in poverty? [Hispanics, 529]
85. In 1962 Carla and Ross Ward begin what eventually becomes this museum. [Tinker Town Museum, 529]
86. Who founded (1962) the Alianza Federal de Mercedes? [Reies López Tijerina]
87. Who spotted hat appeared to be a UFO south of Socorro on April 25, 1964? [Officer Lonnie Zamora, 530]
88. Who was instrumental in bringing the Sister Cities program to NM? [Ruth Hashimoto, 532]
89. What foreign city became Albuquerque’s first Sister City? [Sasebo, Japan, 532]
90. In 1967 a scheduled community barbecue in Coyote escalated into what incident? [Tierra Amarilla Courthouse Raid, 532]
91. In 1967 NM painter Peter Hurd (married to Henriette Wyeth) made national headlines due to what? [President L. Johnson rejected Hurd’s portrait of Johnson, 536]
92. What famous sports facility opened its doors in 1967? [The Pit at UNM, 536]
93. What famous sports facility opened its doors in 1968? [The Pan American Center at NMSU, 536]
94. In 1969, N. Scott Momaday, a Kiowa who grew up in Jémez Pueblo, won the Pulitzer Prize for what novel? [House Made of Dawn, 536]
95. What happened to the Alvarado Hotel in 1970? [Razed to the ground, 537]
96. What was Tony Hillerman’s first (1970) novel? [The Blessing Way, 539]
97. What was Rudy Anaya’s first (1972) novel? [Bless Me, Ultima, 541]
98. What spectacular festival began in Albuquerque in 1972? [Balloon Fiesta, 543]
99. The first Women’s Study Center was founded in 1972 at what university? [UNM, 543]
101. Who published Popular Arts of Spanish New Mexico in 1974? [E. Boyd, 545]
102. Who served as Chairman of the All Indian Pueblo Council from 1975 to 1984? [Delfine Lovato, 548]
103. Where was the Very Large Array project begun in 1975? [West of Socorro on the plains of San Agustín, 549]
104. The CRIME STOPPERS project was created by what officer in 1976? [Greg MacAleese, 550]
105. What Amerindian center opened in 1976? [Indian Pueblo Cultural Center, 550]
106. What appointment did Mari-Luci Jaramillo receive from President Carter in 1977? [Ambassador to Honduras, 552]
107. Who founded Microsoft Corporation in 1979? [Bill Gates and Paul Allen, 553]
108. What research organization was created at UNM in 1980? [Southwest Hispanic Research Institute, 557]
109. What project was founded by Dr. John Kessell in 1980? [Vargas Project, 558]
110. What happened at the penitentiary outside Santa Fe in February of 1980? [Worst prison riot in American history, 558]
111. What book did Simon J. Ortiz of Acoma Pueblo publish in 1980? [Fight Back, 555]
112. Who has researched much history of NM land grants? [Malcolm Ebright, 557]
113. What area became NM’s 33rd county? [Cíbola County, 559]
114. Who founded the Hispanic Culture Foundation in 1981? [Arturo Ortega, 560]
115. What museum is the most visited in NM? [Museum of Natural History & Science, 563]
116. Who introduced legislation to study the feasibility for the creation of a Hispanic Cultural Center in 1987? [Alfonso “Al” Otero, 565]
117. Who was the first woman elected as Governor of Isleta Pueblo? [Vera Olguin Williamson, 565]
118. What did President Reagan add to America’s National Historic Trails in 1987? [Santa Fe Trail, 565]
119. What is a Pueblo governor’s symbol of authority? [Silver-crowned cane, 565]
120. How many authority canes does each Pueblo governor have? [Four, 566]
121. Name the Pueblo authority canes. [Spanish, Lincoln, State of NM, King Juan Carlos, 566]
122. What organization was founded “to promote opportunities for Hispanic women”? [Hispanic Women’s Council, 566]
123. What organization focused on NM music was founded in 1989? [NM Hispanic Music Association, 567]
124. What work did historian-genealogist Carlos LoPopolo begin publishing in 1990? [The New Mexico Chronicles, 569]
126. What work was published in 1992 to “put a face on the feminine side of NM history”? [Nuestras Mujeres, 577]
127. What Jémez Pueblo author published Pueblo Nations in 1992? [Joe Sando, 578]
128. In 1992 what three countries provided the greatest number of tourists to NM? [Canada, Germany, Mexico, 582]
129. What governor of NM signed (1991) the legislation to create the Hispanic Culture Center in Albuquerque? [Bruce King, 582]
130. The 1994 book Victory in World War II: The New Mexico Story lists Congressional Medal of Honor winners but omits what two New Mexicans? [Joe P. Martínez and José E. Valdez, 585]
131. Who led the effort to build the Oñate Monument in Alcalde, NM? [Emilio Naranjo, 586]
132. Who is the founder of the La Herencia del Norte magazine? [Ana Pacheco, 586]
133. What Albuquerque business owner holds a yearly matanza in honor of his mother and traditional NM culture? [Prem Gabaldon, 589]
134. Who is the biggest land owner in NM? [Federal Government, 593]
135. Whom did President Clinton appoint as Ambassador to the United Nations in 1996? [Bill Richardson, 599]
136. Name the two boxing title holders from Albuquerque. [Johnny Tapia, Danny Romero, 604]
137. What was the official song of the Cuarto Centennial? [El Corrido de don Juan de Oñate by Angel Espinoza, 604]
138. What was the only calendar dedicated to NM’s 400th anniversary in 1998? [Calendar of the Great Southwest: New Mexico Edition, 606]
139. Why was the New Mexican Hispanic Culture Preservation League created? [“To combat defamation of Hispanic history and culture,” 607]
140. Who was selected as Ambassador to Spain by President Clinton in 1998? [Ed Romero, 610]
141. Who was the first (1851) Presbyterian (first Protestant) minister in NM? [Reverend W.J. Kephardt, page 249]
142. What two French religious leaders arrived in NM in 1851? [Lamy and Machebeuf, 249]
143. Name the two historians who disagree totally on NM religious history. [Paul Horgan, Angélico Chávez, 249]
144. What Baptist minister opened (1851) the Santa Fe Academy school? [Rev. M. Reid, 255]
145. What fort was established (1851) some 25 miles northeast of Las Vegas? [Fort Union, 256]
146. Who established (1852) a school in Laguna Pueblo? [Samuel Gorman, 257]
147. What religious group established (1852) the school for girls La Academia de Nuestra Señora de la Luz? [Sisters of Loretto, 257]
148. How did Governor Lane challenge (1852) Col. Sumner? [To a duel, 257]
149. How did Solomon Jacob Spiegelberg help the territorial legislature in 1852? [With a $4,000 loan, 257]
150. Who was the first U.S. Attorney in NM? [W.W.H. Davis, 259]
151. Who was the first (1854) Surveyor General? [William Pelham, 261]
152. The Donation Act of 1854 had to do with the acquisition of what? [Land, 261]
153. What Jicarilla Apache chief was killed (1854) by a detachment of U.S. Cavalry when the Americans accused him of stealing cattle? [Lobo Blanco, 262]
154. In 1854 the NM Legislature passed a law that denied the vote to what group of New Mexicans? [Pueblo Indians, 263]
155. What did Indian Agent E.A. Graves predict (1854) for NM Indians? [Extinction, 263]
156. In 1855 commerce over what route was valued at $5,000,000? [Santa Fe Trail, 264]
157. In 1855 the Utes attacked Ft. Pueblo because they said blankets given to them had been purposely infected with what? [Smallpox, 264]
158. In 1856 the NM Legislature passed laws that targeted what group? [African Americans, 265]
159. W.W.H. Davis, New Mexico’s first United States Attorney, was charged (1856) with what crime? [Embezzlement, 265]
160. What native priests were excommunicated (1857) by Bishop Lamy? [Padre Martínez and Padre Lucero, 265]
161. Whom did J. Francisco Chávez marry in 1857? [Mary Bowie, 266]
162. Whom did Col. W.W. Loring select as “Chief of Scouts:” for the Gila Expedition of 1857? [Manuel Antonio Chaves, 266]
163. Who destroyed the ranch of Samuel Watrous in 1858? [Comanches, 267]
164. Whom did Rafaél Chacón marry in 1858? [Juanita Paéz, 268]
165. What is the contemporary name of the original settlement (1858) Plaza de los Leones? [Walsenburg, 269]
166. Which is the oldest chartered secondary school in NM? [St. Michael’s of Santa Fe, 269]
167. What large animal was hunted for its meat and hide by ciboleros? [Buffalo (bison) 269]
168. Due to a land boundary dispute, how did bishop Lamy threaten Manuel Antonio Chaves? [With excommunication, 269]
169. Starting in 1895 what famous potter caused a revival in Hopi pottery making? [Nampeyo, 270]
170. What was the nickname of Henry McCarty? [Billy the Kid, 271]
171. How did most New Mexicans react to the Slave Code Act of 1859? [With outrage, 272]
172. What kind of art did José de Gracia Gonzales practice after he arrived from Chihuahua? [Santero Art, 272]
173. Who was the founder of Trinidad, Colorado? [Felipe Baca, 273]
174. What Jewish celebration was the first of its kind held in NM in 1860? [Yom Kippur, 273]
175. What New Mexican became known as “El Millionario”? [Felipe Chávez, 276]
176. José Leandro Perea and Mariano Yrizarri were very active in what field? [Commerce, 277]
177. Who operated a highly successful cabinet shop in Manzano, NM, during the 1860s and 1870s? [Roque Candelaria, 279]
178. What law was repealed immediately upon the outbreak of the Civil War? [Slave Code Act of 1859, p. 281]
179. What side did military officers like Sibley, Loring, Fauntleroy, take for the Civil War? [Confederacy, 281]
180. What was one of the basic weaknesses of the Homestead Act of 1862? [Water sources could be owned privately, 283]
181. In 1862 the village of San Mateo was founded by families from what NM village? [Cebolleta (Seboyeta), 284]
182. What were the major Civil War battles in NM? [Battle of Valverde and Battle of Glorieta Pass, 284]
183. What is a basic characteristic of land history during the Territorial period? [fraud, 284, 291]
184. General James Carleton came to NM leading what group of Union soldiers? [California Column, 291]
185. To where were Navajos deported in 1863? [Bosque Redondo, 293]
186. Giovanni María Agostini was known by what nickname? [The Hermit, 294]
187. Who came to be known as the “Prince of Comancheros”? [José Tafoya, 295]
188. What religious group arrived in NM in 1865? [Sisters of Charity, 296]
189. What was the name of the cattle trail across the lower Pecos area to markets in Colorado and Wyoming? [Goodnight-Loving Trail, 297]
190. What two well known Territorial personalities came from Missouri to NM in 1863 and 1866? [Stephen B. Elkins and Thomas B. Catron, 295, 298]
191. What Texan came to NM and became one of the legendary cattle kings of the West? [John Chisum, 301]
192. Members of what religious order founded the newspaper La Revista Católica? [Jesuits, 302]
193. Who was the first editor of La Revista Católica? [Rev. Donato Gaspari, 302]
194. What large reservation was established in parts of NM, Arizona, and Utah? [Navajo Reservation, 303]
195. What Comanchero from the village of Córdova started trading with Comanches and Kiowas at the age of 18? [Vicente Romero, 303]
196. What Territorial governor tried to destroy NM archival records in 1869? [William A. Pile, 304]
197. What was the name of the wood hauler who rescued most of the archives that Governor Pile had tried to destroy? [Eleuterio Barela, 304]
198. What form of media was the most popular during the Territorial period? [Newspapers, 305, 339]
199. What award did Francis Oliver receive in 1870? [Congressional Medal of Honor, 305]
200. Mow-way was a chief for what group of Indians? [Comanches, 305]
201. Where did Comanches want their reservation to be established? [New Mexico, 305]
202. Italian Jesuits got rid of what at San Felipe de Neri Church in Albuquerque? [Santero Art, 306]
203. The village of La Placita was renamed as what? [Lincoln, 306]
204. Who owned the Amador Hotel in Las Cruces? [Martin Amador, 309]
205. Who started the first bank in Territorial NM? [Lucien Maxwell, 309]
206. Who has been described as “undoubtedly the largest individual landholder in the history of the USA”? [Thomas B. Catron, 309]
207. Where was Pablo Abeita born in 1871? [Isleta Pueblo, 311]
208. How did the Santa Fe Weekly Post describe Comanchero traders? [“Dogs,” 309]
209. How did Gov. Marsh Giddings describe “Santa Fe Mexicans”? [“The lowest class on God’s earth,” 312]
210. What Texas rancher led a large force into NM to recover “stolen Texas cattle”? [John Hittson, 312]
211. Cohepa was a chieftain for what group of Indians? [Comanches, 313]
212. What became the greatest attraction of the Loretto Chapel in Santa Fe? [Spiral Staircase, 315]
213. How was Eben Stanley honored in 1875? [Received Congressional Medal of Honor, 316]
214. What series of killings fostered ill feelings between ethnic groups in Lincoln County? [Horrell War, 317]
215. What mercantile business became the largest in Territorial NM? [Charles Ilfeld & Company, 317]
216. Who was elevated to Archbishop in 1875? [Jean B. Lamy, 318]
217. Who was referred to as the “Small Scallop Tinsmith”? [José María Apodaca, 318]
218. Who was the wife of Willie Spiegelberg? [Flora Langermann Spiegelberg, 319]
219. What band of Comanches was the last to surrender? [Kwahadi, 319]
220. What powerful political group was believed to have been behind the murder of Reverend Tolby? [Santa Fe Ring, 319]
221. Who were the owners of “The House”? [Murphy, Dolan, Riley, 319]
222. William and Simeon Hendrickson founded what town in northwestern NM? [Farmington, 323]
223. In what ceremony, the first in Santa Fe, was Alfred Grunsfeld involved in 1876? [Bar Mitzvah, 323]
224. Is the significance of the “Elkins Handshake” fact or fiction? [Fiction, 323]
225. Name the law that required a land grant to be divided even if only one heir went to court about it. [Partition Statute, 325]
226. Where was Sotero Ortiz born in 1877? [San Juan Pueblo, 329]
227. Where was the Jesuit College located? [Las Vegas, 330]
228. Who was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1884? [Robert McDonald, 330]
229. Ann Vielstitch came from Germany and married (1877) what German NM business man? [John Becker, 331]
230. What railroad line was the first to reach Las Vegas in 1879? [Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe, 336]
231. Who founded (1879) La Estrella de Mora newspaper? [Severino Trujillo, 337]
232. What Apache Chieftain was raiding from 1879-1883? [Victorio, 337]
233. Where was Adolph Bandelier born in 1840? [Switzerland, 339]
234. What other famous personality became a friend of Adolph Bandelier? [Charles F. Lummis, 339]
235. What is the name of Bandelier’s novel? [The Delight Makers, 339]
236. In what year was the railroad completed to Albuquerque? [1880; 339]
237. By 1880 what group of men controlled NM Territory? [Santa Fe Ring, 340]
238. Who wrote the narrative poem “Los Bilitos”? [Frederick Rudulph, 340]
239. What was the name of the santero first identified as “the Mora Santero” and “Flat Figure Santero”? [José Benito Ortega, 341]
240. What workshop produced the most elaborate tinwork made in NM during the 19th century? [Río Abajo Workshop, 342]
241. Who is believed to have been New Mexico’s first novelist? [Manuel Salazar, 343]
242. Who brought cattle into the valley of the Largo, south of Quemado, and named the area the “American Valley”? [John P. Casey of Albuquerque, 343]
243. What was the final name of the “Our Lady of Angels” Albuquerque school for girls opened by the Sisters of Charity in 1882? [St. Vincent’s Academy, 344]
244. The second transcontinental railroad was born on March 8, 1881, when the Southern Pacific and the Santa Fe lines were connected at what NM town? [Deming, 344]
245. What was the nickname of María Adelina Isabel Emilia Otero? [Nina, 344]
246. What ethnologist began work at Cochití and other middle Río Grande Pueblos in 1882? [Adolph Bandelier, 344]
247. With the help of Ash Upson, who wrote The Authentic Life of Billy the Kid? [Pat Garrett, 345]
248. What president of the USA signed the patent of land grant ownership to the Cebolleta (Seboyeta) people? [Chester A. Arthur, 345]
249. By 1883, what NM lawyer is said to be one of the biggest land owners in the USA? [Thomas B. Catron, 346]
250. What was the first (1883) public Jewish organization in NM? [Lodge No. 336 of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith, 356]
251. What appears to be the chief characteristic of many homestead entries in NM after 1883? [Fraud, 347, 349]
252. What Indian reservation of 474,240 acres was established in the Ruidoso area? [Mescalero Apache, 347]
253. Who was indicted nine times on charges of land fraud? [Max Frost, 350]
254. Who fought off some 80-84 cowboys in a thirty-three hour gunfight in Frisco (now Reserve), NM? [Elfego Baca, 351]
255. What territorial governor made the following statement about NM: “The curse of this territory is rings”? [Edmund Ross, 355]
256. What woven blankets are characterized by an eight-pointed star in the design? [Río Grande blankets, 356]
257. What newspaper man was described as belonging to the “…generation intent on leaving a cultural legacy to its descendants”? [José Segura, 356]
258. Which was the first synagogue in NM? [Temple Montefiore in Las Vegas, 357]
259. What Indian reservation of 750,000 acres was established in parts of Río Arriba and Sandoval counties? [Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, 360]
260. What denigrating nickname is given to St. Francis of Assisi by “Penitente hunters”? [“Big Frank,” 360]
261. What is the name of the North American Review article written (1887) by Surveyor General George Julian? [“Land Stealing in New Mexico,” 362]
262. Who wrote a response to George Julian’s article? [Stephen W. Dorsey, 362]
263. What famous hotel owner was born in San Antonio, Socorro County, NM, in 1887? [Conrad Hilton, 363]
264. What Frenchman established a winery (1888) in Belén? [ Adolf Didier, 363]
265. What immigrant from Germany was selected to serve as Governor of Acoma Pueblo? [Solomon Bibo, 363]
266. What French priest became well known for his ministry and work in Tomé? [Fr. Juan B. Railliere, 363]
267. What was the nickname of Manuel Antonio Chaves? [El Leoncito, The Little Lion, 365]
268. Who were the three brothers in Las Vegas who became stalwart land grant activists? [Herrera brothers: Juan, Pablo, Nicanor, 366]
269. What group of land grant activists did the Herrera brothers organize (1889) in the Las Vegas area? [Gorras Blancas, White Caps, 366]
270. Who is described as “the only identified tinsmith to have originated in southern NM”? [The Mesilla Combed Paint Tinsmith, 369]
271. What well known NM personality founded the 25-piece band/orchestra known as La Banda Lírica? [J.M. Hilario Alaríd, 369]
272. Who authored A New Mexico David and Other Stories? [Charles F. Lummis, 371]
273. What land court operated during the years 1891-1904? [Court of Private Land Claims, 375]
274. What ethnologist wrote that Spain “…insured the preservation and progress of the natives…” [Adolph Bandelier, 377]
275. What was the goal of the NM ranchero lifestyle? [“To work your own land and your own stock,” 379]
276. Who is said to have been the leader of the “Society of Bandits” in the Las Vegas area? [Vicente Silva, 380]
277. Who was the first (1892) president of the Hispano-American Press Association? [Victor L. Ochoa, 380]
278. What university opened its doors on June 15, 1892? [University of NM, 381]
279. What is the name of the biographical series published (1894) by the Albuquerque newspaper La Opinion Pública? [New Mexico and Its Illustrious Men, 385]
280. How are the deaths of J. Francisco Chaves and Albert Fountain similar? [Both murdered by unknown assassins; 385, 389]
281. Who was the first native-born New Mexican to be appointed (1897) territorial governor? [Miguel “Gillie” Otero, 396]
282. What activist was instrumental in saving the Jacona land grant? [Cosme Herrera, 398]
283. What was the title of the novel written by Porfirio Gonzales? [History of a Captive/Historia de un cautivo, 399]
284. Who were the members of the Taos Society of Artists? [Ernest Blumenschein, Bert Phillips, Joseph Sharp, Oscar Berninghaus, Irving Couse, Walter Ufer, Victor Higgins, 400]
285. How did the Taos Society of Artists refer to themselves? [Los Ocho Pintores/The Eight Painters, 400]
286. What two Belén law enforcement officers went after Texas outlaws Bronco Bill and Kid Johnson? [Francisco Vigil and Daniel Bustamante, 400]
287. What was the popular name for the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment led by colonels Wood and Roosevelt? [“Rough Riders,” 401]
289. When Santa Fe business men wanted to “modernize” the town by tearing down historic buildings, including the Palace of the Governors, who led the fight against the destruction? [Carlos Vierra, 401]
290. What group of people were adamant that Santa Fe retain its historical heritage? [Artists, 402]
300. When did the 9th Cavalry, the famous “Buffalo Soldiers,” finally leave NM? [In 1900; 403]
301. What law was promoted by Protestant missionaries and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to combat various Indian customs? [Religious Crimes Code, 405]
302. What strategy was used to separate young Indians from their tribal customs? [Send them to far away boarding schools, 405]
303. What two NM towns became centers for art colonies? [Santa Fe and Taos, 405]
304. How is the village of Blackdom unique in NM history? [It was the only town founded by African Americans, 408]
305. Who is the founder (1896) of Blackdom? [Francis Boyer, 408]\
306. Who is said to have discovered the Carlsbad Caverns? [A cowboy named Jim White, 408]
307. What national senator was one of the principal opponents (1902) of statehood for NM? [Senator Albert J. Beveridge (R-Indiana), 409]
308. For whom was the Felipe Chávez School founded? [Girls, 409]
309. What two Belén businessmen were instrumental in bringing the AT&SF railroad into Belén instead of Albuquerque? [Felipe Chávez and John Becker, 410]
310. Because of the railroad, what is the nickname of Belén, NM? [“The Hub City,” 410]
311. What well known NM leader was murdered (1904) by an unknown assassin at Pinos Wells? [J. Francisco Chávez, 411]
312. What hotel was described as the “jewel of the Fred Harvey system”? [Alvarado Hotel, 412]
313. What stock animal was the most important to the NM economy? [Sheep, 413]
314. Who ordered the “protective custody” takeover of Blue Lake, depriving Taos Pueblo of ownership? [President Theodore Roosevelt, 415]
315. In what year did the NM state legislature enact a law that deprived married women of the right to own land? [1907, 416]
316. Name two of the famous trains that went through NM in 1938. [Super Chief, El Capitán, 416]
317. How did Pat Garrett die? [Shot in the back of the head, 417]
318. Who is the author of The Biography of Casimiro Barela? [José E. Fernández, 421]
319. When was NM finally granted statehood status? [January 6, 1912]
320. What does writer R.W. Larson say was the principal reason for refusing to let NM become a state in the American Union? [“…a strong prejudice toward the Spanish-speaking, Roman Catholic people of NM…, 424]
321. Who described Hispanic New Mexicans by saying “…they are not fit to be a free people…” [Charles Bent, 225]
322. What was the name given to the set of laws brought into NM by General Kearny? [Kearny Code, 225]
323. Who was one of the first American women to come live in NM? [Susan Magoffin, 225]
324. What is said to be the only Mexican War battle to be fought (Dec. 25, 1846) on NM soil? [Battle of Brazitos, 226]
325. What was the first USA military fort to be established in the Hispanic Southwest? [Ft. Marcy, northeast of Santa Fe, 226]
326. Who complained to Col. Doniphan that American troops were abusing New Mexican people? [Gov. Charles Bent, 226]
327. Who was charged with treason against the USA (1846, during the Mexican War) while he was a citizen of Mexico? [Manuel Antonio Chaves, 227]
328. What area has been described as the “garden spot of NM” in 1848? [Río Puerco area, 233]
329. Who set a record by traversing the Santa Fe Trail from Santa Fe to Independence, Missouri (some 800 miles) in five days and 16 hours? [Francis X. Aubry, 234]
330. What American name was given to Mt. San Mateo? [Mt. Taylor, 234]
331. Who decided to put a stop to “Mexicans and Pueblos” trading with plains Indians like the Comanches? [Supt. of Indian Affairs James S. Calhoun, 236]
332. Who was assigned by the Mexican government to help those New Mexicans desirous of emigrating back to Mexican territory? [Padre Ramón Ortiz, 237]
333. Where was NM’s first American post office established? [Santa Fe, 240]
334. Who in Taos was described as a master cabinetmaker and blacksmith in the 1850s? [Gabriel Jeantet, 241]
335. What law made NM a territory? [The Organic Act of 1850, 243]
336. While Americans favor it, what do Hispanic New Mexicans in the Legislature reject in their law making? [The legalization of black slavery, 247]
337. What was the name of the group from Cebolleta who could be hired to kidnap young Navajo children? [Cebolleteños, 247]
339. What treaty of 1821 officially recognized all Indians as citizens of Mexico? [Treaty of Córdova, 171]
340. How many sons did María Luis Baca (of the NM real estate BACA LOCATIONS) from Las Vegas have? [Seventeen, 171]
341. Who was the first native New Mexican ever to serve as Governor? [Francisco X. Chávez from Belén, 172]
342. When did French-Canadian Carlos Beaubien arrive in NM? [1823, 173]
343. What was the nickname for beaver pelts? [“Hairy banknotes,” 173]
344. What is the popular name for “Brothers of Our Father Jesús”? [Penitentes, 174]
345. What is the name for the Penitente Brotherhood lodge? [morada, 174]
346. What NM stock animal becomes extremely popular in Missouri and the American southern states? [Mules, 176]
347. According to the Franklin (Missouri) Intelligencer newspaper, whose trading expedition is described as “…a new era” in trade between Mexico and the USA? [Manuel Simon Escudero, 178]
348. What NM town was more or less the center for non-native people to live? [Taos, 183]
349. How many terms did Manuel Armijo serve as Governor? [Three, 183]
350. What three American writers were especially critical of Gov. Armijo? [George Kendall, Josiah Gregg, W.W.H. Davis, 183, 185]
351. What is the name of the stock raising “share owning” system used in NM? [Partido System, 186]
352. In what year did the government of the USA create a cavalry? [1829, 187]
353. What trail did Abiquiú resident Antonio Armijo re-blaze in 1829? [Old Spanish Trail, 187]
354. What do cibolero hunters form with their wagons if threatened by hostile Indians? [Form them into a circle, 188]
355. Who wrote (1832) the report “A Glimpse At New Mexico”? [Antonio Barreiro, 190]
356. First published (1832) by Ramón Abreú, what was the name of the first newspaper in NM? [El Crepúsculo de la Libertad/The Dawn of Liberty, 190]
357. The NM legal system is based on Spanish customary law, with emphasis on what? [Conciliation, 193]
358. In most military expeditions against hostile Indians, ordinary New Mexicans comprise what percentage of the expedition? [90%; 194]
359. Who created the first book ever printed in NM? [Fr. Martínez of Taos, 196]
360. How did mail get from NM to places in Mexico? [Pony Express, 198]
361. Who invaded NM in 1841? [Texans, 203]
362. What was the name of Kit Carson’s 15-year old bride? [Josefa Jaramillo, 207]
363. Who was nicknamed “La Tules”? [Gertrudis Barceló, 208]
364. Who is the author of the 1844 book Commerce of the Prairies? [Josiah Gregg, 209]
365. Who was the wife of Lucien Maxwell? [Luz (daughter of Carlos) Beaubien, 211]
366. What skill was considered the most important for male New Mexicans? [Horsemanship, 211]
367. What was the most popular of NM social gatherings? [Dance, 213]
368. Whose Army invades NM in 1846? [USA, 220]
369. Who leads the American army? [S.W. Kearny, 221]
370. Who departs from NM with his professional soldiers without resisting due to a bribe from James Magoffin? [Col. Diego Archuleta, 221]
371. Who led the first (1540) Spanish expedition into NM? [Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, 14]
372. Who was contracted to establish the first Christian settlement in NM? [Juan de Oñate, 19]
373. What woman became well known for her leadership qualities among the Oñate colonists? [Doña Eufemia Sosa de Peñalosa, 18-19]
374. Who wrote the first history of NM? [Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá, 21]
375. In what form was Historia de la Nueva Mexico/History of New Mexico written? [As an epic poem, 21]
376. What was the name of NM’s first Christian colony? [San Juan de los Caballeros/Knights of St. John, 22]
377. What did the expedition under Vicente de Zaldívar hunt on the eastern plains? [Bison/buffalo, 23]
378. What was the name of the Acoma leader who wanted war with the invading Spaniards? [Zutucapán, 25]
379. How was the Acoma War started? [Juan de Zaldívar and his men were ambushed, 25]
380. Who leads the war effort against Acoma? [Vicente de Zaldívar, 26]
381. How many Acoma warriors are sentenced to death after the Christians prove victorious? [None, 27]
382. Once settled in NM, how did many colonists dress? [In buckskin/gamuza, 31]
383. What event weakened the NM colony in 1601? [Desertion of various soldiers, friars, and colonists; 31]
384. In what year was Acoma Pueblo resettled? [1604; 32]
385. What is the English name for El Morro? [Inscription Rock (National Monument), 32]
386. How did the Franciscans dress in NM? [Blue robes, 36]
387. After Oñate’s resignation, NM is kept for what purpose? [Missionary field, 36]
388. What town was founded around 1608? [Santa Fe, 37]
389. What is the full name of the city of Santa Fe? [La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, 37]
390. In what year was Historia de la Nueva Mexico by Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá published? [1610; 37]
391. What was the only way in or out of NM? [Supply caravan, 36, 39]
392. What was the most powerful religious organization in NM? [Inquisition, 39]
393. The weaving of what two items became important trade items? [Blankets and footless (tube) stockings, 40]
394. When did Fr. Estevan de Perea arrive as Father Custos for NM? [1617, 41]
395. What was given to the governors of all pueblos as a symbol of their governmental authority? [Canes, 45]
396. Who was the Pecos Pueblo missionary who directed the building of the monumental Pecos church? [Fr. Andrés Juárez, 45]
397. What is another name for La Conquistadora? [Our Lady of the Rosary; also Our Lady of Peace, 45]
398. What were the three principal crops of the Pueblo people when Hispanics entered NM? [Corn, beans, squash, 45]
399. What missionary proved to be a great promoter of NM missions? [Fr. Alonso de Benavides, 46]
400. What modern day institution would resemble the NM Indian missions of the 1600s? [A community college, 47]
401. What was the Pueblo Indians major complaint against Christianity? [Its prohibition of polygamy, 51]
402. What was the principal feature of relations between the authorities of Church and State in NM during the 1600s? [Feuds, 54]
403. What developed in NM as a social event to promote trade? [Trade Fairs, 56]
404. What governmental office was created to promote Indian welfare? [Protector of the Indians, 57]
405. Who leveled charges against Francisco Gómez Robledo in 1662? [The Inquisition, 59]
406. What natural disaster became fairly common in NM in the 1660s? [Drought, 61]
407. What was the name given to Bernardo Gruber’s escape route? [Dead Man’s Route/ La Jornada del Muerto, 61]
408. Which pueblo was Popé from? [San Juan, 64]
409. What is another name for the Pueblo Revolt of 1680? [The St. Lawrence Day Massacre, 64]
410. What were Popé’s instructions to all taking part in the Pueblo Revolt? [“Death to all Christians,” 65]
411. Where did the survivors of the massacre go in an effort to survive? [El Paso, which was considered to be southern New Mexico, 67]
412. Who led Christian people back to Santa Fe in 1693? [Diego de Vargas, 75]
413. Did Vargas and his colonists exterminate the Pueblo people as revenge for the 1680 massacre? [No, 75]
414. What governor of Pecos Pueblo became a stalwart ally of Gov. Vargas? [Juan de Ye, 84]
415. What happened to Juan de Ye? [He was murdered by the Taos, 87]
416. After the Vargas re-founding of Santa Fe, what NM town was founded next? [Santa Cruz (de la Cañada), 90]
417. Name the two basic types of land grants made to New Mexicans. [Private and community, 93]
418. In what year was Atrisco founded (in the present Albuquerque area)? [1703; 94]
419. When did Diego de Vargas die? [April 8, 1704; 94]
420. What kind of circular, two-story buildings are created in small NM villages for defense against hostile Indians? [Watchtowers/torreones, 94]
421. What is the name given to Indians, usually from the plains, who have lost their tribal identity and have acculturated to Spanish NM culture? [Genízaros, 96]
422. What are the two strongest bonds which form the Hispano-Pueblo alliance? [Christianity and self-reservation, 96]
423. Trade fairs are hold all over NM but which becomes the most popular? [Taos trade fair, 98]
424. When is the Santa Fe Fiesta started? [1712, 99]
425. The Segesser (which is the name of the collector) Hide Painting is a depiction of what historical event? [Villasur Expedition, 102]
426. What Amerindian nation is considered the most important trading group by 1723 during the Taos Fair? [Comanches, 104]
427. Who was the first (1730) bishop to come into NM? [Bishop Benito Crespo, 107]
428. Who was NM’s first ordained native priest? [Fr. Santiago Roybal, 108]
429. The two Franciscans Sopeña and Irigoyen denounced what writer to the Inquisition? [Miguel de Quintana, 109]
430. What nation displaced the Apaches in eastern NM? [Comanches, 110]
431. What is the native name for “Navajoland”? [Dinétah, 111]
432. What eastern NM pueblo was a favorite target for Comanche raiders? [Pecos Pueblo, 112]
433. What is the native name for transporters of goods (now) called mulepackers? [Arrieros, 113]
434. By 1750 what is NM’s most important industry? [Sheep ranching, 114]
435. Who is considered to be NM’s most famous cartographer (mapmaker)? [Bernardo Miera y Pacheco, 118]
436. What has been described as “the lifeblood of NM”? [Acequias/irrigation ditches, 118]
437. For whom was Sena Plaza named in Santa Fe? [Bernardino de Sena, 120]
438. Who began (1765) the Trujillo family weaving tradition in Chimayó? [Diego de Trujillo, 120]
439. What Comanche chieftain became an implacable enemy of Spanish NM? [Cuerno Verde/ Green Horn, 123]
440. Besides being a cartographer, Bernardo Miera y Pacheco is renowned for what other activities? [Santero, sculptor, painter; 123-4]
441. Who wrote (1776) a comprehensive inventory and description of the NM missions? [Fr. Francisco Atanasio Domínguez, 127]
442. What two Franciscans led the trail blazing expedition that would identify what would come to be known as the “Old Spanish Trail”? [Francisco A. Domínguez and Silvestre de Escalante, 127]
443. Who wrote (1778) the “Account of Disorders in New Mexico”? [Fr. Juan Agustín de Morfi, 128]
444. What great frontier hero became governor of NM in 1778? [Juan Bautista de Anza, 129]
445. Who is referred to as the “scourge of New Mexico”? [Cuerno Verde, 129]
446. What disease continued to ravage New Mexicans? [Smallpox, 130]
447. What was the pejorative (put-down) name used sometimes against Spanish born friars? [Gachupines, 131]
448. What Comanche chieftain worked for peace with Spanish NM? [Ecueracapa, 131]
449. What was the supreme accomplishment of Anza and Ecueracapa in NM? [Comanche Peace of 1786, 132-3]
450. What is the name for NM traders who went out to do business with the plains Indians like Comanches? [Comancheros, 133]
451. What is the name of the master NM horsemen who hunted buffalo (bison) with the lance? [Ciboleros, 138]
452. Who is the greatest trail blazer in the history of the Southwest? [Pedro Vial, 139, 145]
453. It has been said that 93% of NM households (in 1790) did not hold any what? [Slaves, 140]
454. Who is paying the bills for all missionary activity in NM? [Spanish government, 140]
455. By 1800, which NM group is larger numerically, men or women? [Women, 146]
456. Who was a pioneering sheep rancher in NM and Arizona? [Juan Candelaria, 146]
457. Who discovered (1800) the fabulous copper mine that came to be known as the Santa Rita? [Col. J. Manuel Carrasco]
458. What has been described as “one of the rare, truly indigenous art forms to be found in the USA”? [Santero art, 148]
459. Who attacked (1804) the thirty or so families who were creating the village of Cebolleta (Seboyeta)? [1000 Navajo warriors, 152]
460. When was vaccination against smallpox introduced into NM? [In 1805, 153]
461. What American expedition came into NM in 1807? [Zebulon M. Pike, 154]
462. Where was the usual gathering point for the NM trade caravans going south into Mexico? [La Joya de Sevilleta, 154]
463. What was the native Spanish name for wild horse cowboys/mustangers? [Mesteñeros, 156]
464. What is New Mexico’s most famous religious shrine? [Santuario de Chimayó, 157]
465. Who was NM’s only delegate to the Spanish parliament? [Pedro Bautista Pino, 160]
466. Where was the birthplace of Manuel Antonio Chávez, NM’s most famous frontiersman? [Atrisco, 168]
467. When does Mexico win its independence from Spain? [September 27, 1821]
468. What group is believed to have been the earliest residents of NM? [Sandía people, circa 12,000 B.C., page 1]
469. What group is believed to have hunted large game animals in NM? [Clovis people, circa, 10,000 B.C., page 1]
470. What group is believed to have been the first cultivators of corn, squash, and beans in NM? [Cochise people, ca. 10,000 B.C., page 1]
471. What group is believed to have been flourishing in the Southwest by around 9,000 B.C.? [Folsom people, page 1]
472. Who is believed to have been the ancestors of the modern Pueblo people? [Anasazi, 2]
473. What was the height of Anasazi cultural development? [Chaco civilization, 2]
474. What pueblo village might have been founded around 750 A.D.? [Picurís Pueblo, 4]
475. What pueblo village is thought to have been founded around 1000 A.D.? [Taos Pueblo, 4]
476. What pueblo village is thought to have been founded around 1300 A.D.? [Acoma, 8]
477. What two pueblo villages might have been founded around the 1300s? [Nambé and San Ildefonso, 9]
478. What is the modern name for Tua-Tah? [Taos Pueblo, 4]
479. What are the translations for Hlauuma and Hlaukwima? [North House and South House, respectively, in Taos Pueblo, 4]
480. What is the translation of Nambé? [“Mound of Earth in the Corner,” 9]
481. What is the translation of Po-Woh-Ge-Oweenge? [“Where the Water Cuts Down Through,” now San Ildefonso Pueblo, 9]
482. When did Athabascan people begin coming into the Southwest? [Around 1400, 9]
483. Who are the Athabascan people? [Apache and Navajo, 9]
484. Who were the first pioneers in what is now called the American Southwest? [Pueblo people, 5]
485. What were the approximate years of the climactic period known as “The Little Ice Age” in North America? [Around 1450-1850, 10]
Many of these items, mostly in the Spanish language, are from the Glossary of New Mexico: A Brief Multi-History. Some might appear in the Index. Translate them into English, study them and explain what you know about them. Use the Index to see if it contains additional information on any item.
Cinco de Mayo
don / doña
Flor de Noche Buena
Jornada del Muerto
“Pasó por aquí”
Reglamento de 1729
San Juan de los Caballeros
III. Biography: WHO??
( From the 2005 edition of New Mexico: A Brief Multi-History)
Instructions: Provide an item of biographical information so that a student can state who the biographee is.
1. The teacher can read the clue(s) and call on a student to answer.
1. An appropriate number of students, perhaps three to five “presenters,” can each be provided with a copy of one biography and they will read/ask the clues to the class or of selected teams (two?; boys against girls, etc.) from the class.
2. The presenter will select a student or a team member to answer the clue, alternating presenters from one team to another to insure fairness.
3. When/If a biography is guessed correctly the student asking the question(s) will sit down
4. Another student from class will take the place of the former presenter and ask questions on another biography provided by the teacher.
5. The teacher will decide when a team has won. For example, if a team can “sit down” five different presenters, that team can be declared the winner.
5. The teacher will decide how to reward all participants.
Clue: Male (p. 494)
1. As a youngster he was enrolled in a Jesuit school in Albuquerque then he attended St. Michael’s in Santa Fe.
He became fluent in English and Spanish.
1889—He begins serving on the All Indian Pueblo Council (AIPC).
2. By 1905 he is managing the family general store in his village.
1912—He is elected president of the village business council.
1913—He serves (for ten years) as a judge in the Indian court system.
1922—He is elected secretary of the AIPC and the effort by all is to defeat the Bursum Bill.
3. His work takes him to Washington, D.C. many times but he never forgets his Tiwa roots.
He is often referred to as “The Grand Old Man of Isleta Pueblo.”
Clue: Male (p. 541)
1. He is born October 30, l937 in the small village of Pastura. The family later moves to Santa Rosa where he experiences the large family and the even larger extended family. The Spanish language is spoken almost exclusively.
1952--The family relocates to Albuquerque in the historic Barelas neighborhood.
He attends Albuquerque High School.
In the summer of 1954 he suffers a serious back injury and spends an entire summer at Carrie Tingley Hospital.
2. 1956--He graduates from high school and enrolls in the Browning Business School from which he graduates in 1958.
1963--He graduates from UNM with a B.A. in Literature, adds an M.A. in 1968 and a second M.A. in Guidance and Counseling in 1972. He begins teaching in the Albuquerque Public School.
3. 1972 His first novel, Bless Me, Ultima, is published and becomes a best seller.
1974 He becomes an associate professor of English at UNM.
1976 Heart of Aztlan is published and he begins work at an editor with
Voices from the Rio Grande.
1979 Torturga is published in California.
1982 His short story collection, The Silence of the LLano, I published.
1984 Bless Me, Ultima is published in German.
1988 He is elevated to the rank of Full Professor at UNM>
4. 1989--He edits Tierra, Contemporary Short Fiction of New Mexico.
1989-93--He founds and edits the Blue Mesa Review.
1993--Bless Me, Ultima is published in Spanish.
1996--Rio Grande Fall is he latest novel, published by Warner Books.
5. His works have been translated into German, Italian, French, Japanese, Russian.
He continues to write, edit, lecture and encourage the development of
Clue: Male (p. 567)
1. Born 1947 in the historic Barelas section of ABQ.
Attends Sacred Heart Elementary school and then St. Mary's High School where he is greatly influenced by his teachers, especially coach Babe Parenti.
2. In 1968 he is a delegate to the Democratic Convention in Chicago.
In 1973 he graduates from UNM School of Law.
1975-1998--He is elected to the State Senate from District 14.
Through the years he chairs, co-chairs or is a member of committees like Legislative Council, Rules, Finance, Radioactive and Hazardous Materials, etc.
3. His stated goals are to provide more educational opportunity and jobs for more people, to improve health care and the quality of life.
He a leading advocate for the poor, for minorities, working class people, for women and children and others who are underrepresented or not represented at all.
4. 2004--He is selected to serve as President of Highlands University in Las Vegas, NM.
5. Most people refer to him as “Manny.”
Clue: Male (p. 504)
1. He is born on July l, l883, in San Miguel del Barrio.
Growing up he works as a shepherd, miner, and railroad hand in several western states.
1910--He joins the Brotherhood.
1916--He marries Esquipulita Salazar and they buy a ranch in Palma.
1922--Drought forces them to move to Santa Fe where he works for
various state and municipal agencies until retirement.
2. 1938--He is a member of the Ministerial Council of the Alliance Fraternity of Our Father Jesus of Colorado and New Mexico.
1943--He leads the movement to have the Brotherhood officially recognized
by the Church.
1946--He begins a seven-year term as the first Hermano Supremo
He is elected Hermano Supremo until 1960 when his health begins to fail.
3. 1947--The Brotherhood is officially recognized by the Church.
Local moradas and councils are now organized into districts which are under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop's Supreme Council.
4. 1956--His wife dies and for a time he lives at the Velarde Nursing Home until he returns to stay with his family in Santa Fe.
1958--A limited edition of The Way of the Cross: A New Mexico Version is
inscribed for him “…in appreciation of the important role his Brotherhood has had in development and preservation of this beautiful expression of the true vocation of New Mexico Spanish people.”
Clue: Female (p. 605)
1. Has been described as an "Outstanding Woman of New Mexico."
Designed & produced the slide presentation "The Child of Mine."
State Director, March of Dimes 1979-80.
Account Executive for KRDM Radio, Albuquerque.
2. Special Agent for Prudential Financial Services.
Awarded National Sales Achievement Award 5 years in a row.
3. Owner operator of “Snow Goose Gift Baskets.”
4. Lobbied for building the Hispanic Cultural Center..
l993 - Receives Governor's award for “Outstanding Woman of the Year.”
5. 1997--Selected President & C.E.O. of the Albuquerque Hispano Chamber of Commerce.
Clue: Male (p. 553)
1. 1932--He is born in Dixon.
His father is a native Hispano Presbyterian clergyman.
He attends community schools and Presbyterian Mission boarding schools in Santa Fe and Albuquerque.
1951-54--After graduation from High School he enlists in the Marine Corps
and serves in Korea. Upon returning he enrolls at UNM for one year then
moves to San Diego where in 1958 receives a B.A. degree from California
2. 1959--begins his professional career as a child welfare worker.
1962--He receives an MSW degree in social work from USC.
1963-65--He is a community mental health consultant for three counties in northern New Mexico.
1966--He is director of the Colorado Migrant Council with a keen interest in
organizing farm workers in the migrant stream from Texas to the East Coast.
1968--He returns to New Mexico and co-founds Academia de La Nueva Raza as the vehicle for developing and testing the Resolana concept.
3. In 1985 he is awarded a PhD in Sociology from UNM. His dissertation is awarded the George I. Sanchez Award for Outstanding Dissertation.
He directs the Southwest Hispanic Research Institute until 1989.
1987 He writes a paper "The Impact of Crypto-Judaism on Contemporary
Indo Hispano Culture".
1989--His lecture "Resolana, A Chicano Pathway to Knowledge" is published by the Stanford Center for Chicano Research.
1989-92 he directs a four-year seminal series on the theme of "The Indo-
Hispano Legacy after Columbus".
4. 1993--He is a panelist at the Cesar Chavez Social Justice Convocation on Racism.
1994—He receives the Eagle Feather Award for Outstanding Services to American Communities from the National Indian Youth Leadership Project.
l997--He receives the Maclovio Barraza Leadership Award from the National Council of La Raza.
5. 1998--He is a Lecturer at UNM, specializing in programs for television and computers. He appears weekly on Channel 19.
Clue: Male (p. 479)
1. He is born around 1900 in Bisbee, Arizona.
1908—The family moves to Taos.
1911—He is already working as a laborer, hauling stone.
1912—After an argument with his father he leaves home and works wherever he can.
In Colorado he is befriended by a black family.
He learns the English language.
2. By 1930 he returns to Taos.
1932—He is attracted to wood carving and his goal is to create a santo type carving out of a single piece of wood.
1936—He is producing highly developed wood sculptures.
Some of his pieces are put on display by the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and he is described as “the outstanding artist” of their show.
3. Some artists in the Taos art colony are jealous of his acclaim and the head of the WPA art project in NM keeps hidden the national demand for his sculptures.
He can’t make a living at it but he continues to produce exquisite wood sculptures. His work is described thusly: “The spirit of his work spans centuries and is universally intelligible.”
1964—He dies in his studio when a fire breaks out in the building.
He is now considered to have been America’s greatest wood sculptor.
Clue: Female (p. 455)
1. She is born in 1875 in Winchester, Virginia.
In 1883 the family moves to Nebraska and she becomes enamored of ranch life and the plains country.
She is home-schooled because there are no schools in the vicinity.
2. In 1895 she graduates from the University of Nebraska and moves to Pittsburgh.
1905—She publishes a collection of short stories.
1906—She helps to edit McClure’s Magazine in New York.
1913—Her book O Pioneers! Is published and resulting income enables her to write full time without the need of side employment.
1922—She is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for One of Ours.
3. 1927--Her masterwork, Death Comes for the Archbishop, is published. It is said to be the best novel to come out of the Southwest.
Clue: Male (p. 435)
1. He started his career as a reporter then later copy editor at La Voz del Pueblo newspaper.
He worked as a journalist for 20 years.
2. He was always very active in community affairs and he vowed always to work for the good of poor people.
He supported the efforts of the Gorras Blancas to protect their lands.
His brother Manuel condemned the Gorras Blancas.
3. In 1916 he ran for Governor of NM and defeated Holm Bursum
He died suddenly after some 49 days in office.
One of his famous quotations is: “I die poor but I lived in honor.”
He is universally recognized as “The Peoples’ Champion.”
Clue: Male (p. 476)
1. He is born in 1888 in the village of Los Chávez, the eldest of eight children.
1895—The family moves to Albuquerque.
1901—He drops out of high school because he has to work to support the family.
2. In 1916 he is offered a clerkship in the US Senate.
1918—At the age of 30 he enters Georgetown Law School.
1920—He receives his law degree.
1923—He is elected to the NM State Legislature.
1930—He is elected to the national House of Representatives
1934—He loses his bid to become a Senator when Bronson Cutting defeats him (the only political race he ever lost).
3. Senator Cutting dies in an airplane accident so Governor Tingley appoints him to the US Senate and he is reelected for the rest of his life.
He becomes known as “The Voice of the People.”
He denounces the tactics of Senator Joseph McCarthy.
At the time of his death in 1962 he is the fourth ranking Senator in the USA.
4. In 1966 his statue is unveiled in Statuary Hall, the first from NM.
1991—A stamp is issued in his honor by the US Postal Service.
Clue: Male (p. 457)
1. He was born in 1881.
He attended art schools and dedicated himself to the world of art
He once said: “Art demands the whole person and for the whole of his life.”
2. By 1908 he is ranked as “Master Scientist of All Arts” because he is adept in sculpting, architecture, and woodcarving.
1923—He goes to New York and lives there four years
1927—He moves to Taos.
1931—He becomes an American citizen.
His art work is exhibited internationally and he wins innumerable awards.
3. His wife wants and gets a divorce in 1933 so he leaves Taos behind.
1948—He creates an art studio in Santa Monica, California.
1955—He dies but he is now known as “The Modern Michelangelo."
His ashes are returned to his native Kazan, Russia.
Clue: Male (p. 463)
1. His home town is Worchester, Massachusetts.
2. He comes to NM and settles on a ranch near Roswell to work. He works on developing the use of liquid fuel.
1939—One of his rockets is now capable of going 6 miles into the atmosphere.
1940—He seeks funding from the military. The Army isn’t interested but the Navy is.
1941—He leaves NM and relocates to Annapolis, Maryland, to work on a Navy contract
3. He once said: “Aiming for the stars is a goal to occupy generations.”
Quote about his work: “This was the most amazing lone wolf development program in the history of technology.”
Today he is considered as the “Father of American Rocketry.”
Clue: Female (p. 573)
1. Born 1942 in Roy, NM.
Father a rancher, Mother a school teacher. She is one of 5 daughters.
She graduates from El Rito High School.
2 Graduates from the College of Education at UNM and teaches in public schools in California and New Mexico.
In 1970 she becomes a Teaching Assistant at UNM where in 1971 she is awarded an M.A. in Spanish.
In 1978 she receives her PhD in Romance Languages.
3. 1983-84--She is an Associate Professor at UNM and also receives UNM President's Award for Outstanding Teacher of the Year.
4. 1988--She co-edits Las Mujeres Hablan,
1989--edits Paso Por Aquí.
5. 1992--She is a Professor & Chair of the Department of Spanish & Portuguese at UNM.
6. 1996 She co-edits Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Tradition.
7. 1997--She is Chair of the Department of Ethnic Studies at Oregon State University where she continues to write, lecture and conduct special seminars.
Clue: Male (p. 539)
1. Born in Sacred Heart, Oklahoma on May 27, l925.
Attends St. Mary's Academy and then Konowa High School.
In 1942 enrolls at Oklahoma State University but quits a year later to manage the family farm after his father passes away.
When he turns 18 he joins the Army.
In 1944 he lands in France on D-Day.
1945--He awarded the Silver Star. Later he is wounded by an
enemy grenade while on patrol in Alsace, and is returned to the U.S.
2. 1945-48--He attends the University of Oklahoma.
l948-5--He writes for the New Herald in Borger, Texas, becomes News editor for the Morning Press in Lawton, Oklahoma, and becomes a reporter for the United Press International in Oklahoma City.
1952-62--He is UPI bureau chief in Santa Fe, then works as reporter and editor for the Santa Fe New Mexican.
3. 1963--Attends UNM and 1964 is hired as associate professor in Journalism.
1966--He becomes the Chair of the UNM Journalism department.
1970--His first novel, The Blessing Way, is published, "launching" the career of Lt. Joe Leaphorn of the Navajo Tribal Police.
Many books follow and several make the New York Times Best-Seller list.
4. 1975--He is awarded the Dan Burrows Memorial Award for Journalism.
1976--He becomes assistant to UNM President William Davis.
1985--He retires from the UNM Journalism Department.
He continues to write popular books to this day.
Clue: Male (p. 523)
1. Born August 1, l903 in Buffalo, New York to "first generation Americans, of English, Irish, French, and German blood.
In 1915 the family moves to Albuquerque.
He continues his education in the Albuquerque Public Schools, New Mexico
Military Institute, the Eastman School of Music and the Eastman Theatre
in Rochester, New York.
2. He accepts the post of librarian at N.M. Military Institute and pursues his
interest in writing.
1933: His first novel, The Fault of Angels, receives the Harper Prize.
1942-46 He serves in the Army General Staff Corps. then returns to N.M. and devotes himself full time to writing.
3. 1955--He receives the Pulitzer Prize for Great River: The Rio Grande in North American History.
1956--He receives an honorary doctorate from Wesleyan University.
1962--He becomes the director of the Center for Advanced Studies at Wesleyan.
1975 His biography, Lamy of Santa Fe, is awarded the Pulitzer Prize, as well as the Bancroft Prize.
1976--He is awarded the Laetare Medal by the University of Notre Dame.
1977--He receives an honorary doctorate, his 20th, from Yale.
1981--He is awarded the Baldwin Medal of Wesleyan University.
4. 1982--His 17th novel, Mexico Bay, is published in his 79th year. His works are being distributed in 17 countries.
Kessell, John L.
Clue: Male (p. 571)
1. Born l936 in East Orange, New Jersey.
Both parents are medical doctors.
Family relocates in 1943 to Fresno, CA. He graduates high school there and
goes on to Fresno State College where he receives a B.A. Degree.
2. After extensive travels through Australia, Far East, Mediterranean, Spain,
Rome and Halifax he does graduate work at Berkeley and receives an M.A. in History of Latin America.
3. 1961-1966—He works as Historian at Saratoga National Historical Park and Tumacacori National Monument in Arizona and becomes fascinated with Southwestern colonial history.
In 1967 he is recruited to UNM. and in 1969 receives a PhD in History.
4. 1970-1980 he works as a self-employed contract historian.
Mission of Sorrows: Jesuit Guevavi and the Pimas, 1691-1767,
Friars, Soldiers, and Reformers: Hispanic Arizona and the Sonora Mission Frontier, 1767-1856,
Kiva, Cross, and Crown: The Pecos Indians and New Mexico, 1540-1840.
5. 1980--He founds the Vargas Project at UNM. His Missions of New Mexico Since 1776 is published by UNM Press.
1990--his "Remote Beyond Compare" is selected as the best non-fiction book of the year by the Historical Society of New Mexico.
6. 1996--He semi-retires from UNM but continues to work with graduate students and the Vargas Project.
Clue: Male (p. 434)
1. He is born in the village of Córdova in 1869.
He works as a carpenter but also creates filigree jewelry.
2. In 1817 his son Nicademos is drafted for service in WW I.
Worried for his son’s safety, he suffers from insomnia so to pass the time he begins to whittle on wood, which leads him into wood carving.
3. In the 1920s he sells his wood carving as the Santa Fe Fiesta, the Spanish Arts Shop, the Native Market.
For the tourist trade he creates small animals and different kinds of birds.
4. He encourages his children to take up wood carving. Liria, George, Ricardo, and Nicudemos become woodcarvers.
Due to him and his family, Córdova is considered to this day as the center of the NM wood carving industry.
Clue: Female (p. 534)
1. She lives in Roswell. She wins her first tournament at the age of 9.
She wins the New Mexico Women's Amateur Tournament at the age of 12.
197l:Attends Goddard H.S. After a threatened lawsuit she gets to play on the
boy's team in her sophomore and junior years.
Goddard wins the State golf title both years.
Her senior year she finishes second in the New Mexico Women's Open and later that summer she garners another second in the U.S. Women's Open.
2. 1978--She wins her first professional tournament at the age of 21 then goes on to win five consecutive tournaments to set a record as the All-time
Rookie money winner in the 20-year history of the Ladies Professional Golf
She wins nine of the next twenty-five tournaments she enters, causing her to be selected as (Pro-Golf) Player of the Year and Female Rookie of the Year, as well as being awarded the Vare Trophy for the lowest scoring average of the season.
3. 1987 She is elected to the LPGA Hall of Fame, one of the youngest inductees on record.
She is credited with revolutionizing golf for women, proving that you don't have to be male or born to privilege to participate in the sport.
Her place in sports history is assured.
Clue: Female (p. 427)
1. She is considered the precursor of NM’s female writers.
Her father was a newspaper editor in Las Vegas.
2. In 1911 she writes an essay on the role of the Spanish language in the public schools.
At the age of 19 she is appointed by Governor MacDonald to help create the NM exhibit at the 1912 San Diego Exposition.
1917—She begins her life-long career in teaching.
She marries George White
She earns degrees from Highlands University.
3. During her career she serves as Superintendent of Schools for San Miguel County, teaches Spanish at Highlands Univ., becomes Assistant Supt. of Instruction for NM Public Schools.
1953—She publishes Literary Folklore of the Hispanic Southwest.
4. Her father was newspaper editor Antonio Lucero.
Clue: Male (p. 459)
1. He is born in 1918.
1948: marries Jean Kay Couchman.
1950: earns a B.A. degree from the College of Santa Fe.
2. In 1968 he runs as a Republican for the House of Representatives and upsets five-term incumbent Thomas G. Morris
He is the only Hispanic in the national House of Representatives.
He serves for 20 years in the House until he retires.
3. In 1988 President Bush appoints him to the Cabinet post of Secretary of the Interior and he accepts the assignment.
Most of his constituents refer to him as “Manuel.”
Clue: Male (p. 561)
1. He is born in 1938 in Old Town Albuquerque.
He is the product of an Hispanic family and an Hispanicized Irish family.
Attends San Felipe de Neri Elementary School, then St. Mary's High School where he graduates.
2. Enrolls at UNM where he studies with professors like Spanish novelist
Ramon Sender and New Mexican author Sabine Ulibarrí.
In 1960 receives B.A. and goes to Florida State University for graduate work.
3. 1962--He receives an M.A. degree from Florida State.
1962-64—He teaches Spanish courses at North Texas State University. While there he becomes interested in history and political activism.
1965—He returns to UNM as a doctoral student in History and helps organize the UNM chapter of Students for a Democratic Society.
4. 1974—He receives his Ph.D.
His dissertation is titled Elements of Myth in Spanish Thought and in the Writings of the Generation of 1898.
1979--begins his career as dramatist when Albuquerque's Compañia de Teatro produces his bilingual comedy "Lola's Last Dance.”
1980--He publishes various poems.
He goes on to publish more poems, teleplays, short stories.
5. Enrique R. Lamadrid described his work as " a chapter in the intellectual history of the Hispanic Southwest" which explores the themes of mestizaje, cultural resistance, and intellectual independence.
6. 1995--He teaches Creative Writing in the English Department at UNM. His poetry and fiction writing work shops are extremely popular.
7. He is known to his friends as “Tony.”
Clue: Male (p. 468)
1. He was born in 1932 on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation. Growing up he hears Spanish, Navajo, and English spoken by the people around him.
1937—The family moves to Santa Cruz.
He attends the McCurdy Mission school where he is severely punished for speaking Spanish.
1950—He graduates from Española High School and takes a serious interest in the art of making pottery.
2. He begins his career in teaching.
He is fluent in English, Spanish, Navajo, and Tewa.
1959—He earns a B.A. degree in History from Highlands University, then later an M.A.
During the summers he helps to write a series of books on the history of the Navajo Nation.
3. In 1981 he retires from teaching and devotes himself to research, writing, and pottery making.
He is acclaimed an a prime example of a trilingual New Mexican.
Clue: Female (p. 594)
1. She is born in Santa Fe to Procopio & Adela Herrera.
2. Returning from California, she works at a tourist shop at San Ildefonso Pueblo.
Meets famous potter, Maria Martinez.
3. 1974--Retablos have a powerful effect on her while working at the Museum of International Folk Art.
4. She studies the lives of the Saints, begins to paint. She specializes in creating retablos.
Exhibits work at Spanish Market in 1979 for first time.
5. Wins awards - retablo category, in 1989, 1991 and 1994.
6. Her family and friends know her as “Pita.”
Clue: Male (p. 555)
1. Born 1941 in Albuquerque, attends the BIA school in McCarty then St Catherine, then the Albuquerque Indian School.
1962-63 attends Ft. Lewis College.
1966-69 studies at UNM then at the University of Iowa.
2. He teaches at San Diego State then at the Institute of American Indian Arts.
1975-79 teaches at various institutions of higher learning while speaking to various groups and doing lecture tours.
3. 1976--his poetry collection, Going for the Rain, is published.
1977--A Good Journey is published.
1978--Howbah Indians is published.
1980--His stories about "now-day Indians" are published under the title of
Fight Back: For the Sake of the People, For the Sake of the Land. They have to do with the struggle against government and corporate exploitation.
1981—A Poem is a Journey is published and From Sand Creek follows.
1983 Fightin': New and Collected Stories is published in which he speaks for "respect, compassion, and the promise of hope".
4. He is an Acoma New Mexican who personifies storytelling in the Indian oral tradition.
Love is his greatest inspiration as a writer.
Contemporary issues are crucial to him for he believes that for Indians to refuse to take part in things like politics is the path to destruction. Cooperation is at the heart of Indian society.
5. On Life & Death: "I have feared death and I have feared life....but I continue to love, to teach, and to write".
Clue: Female (p. 483)
!. In 1942 she becomes the first woman in the USA to be elected to the post of Majority Whip in a State House of Representatives..
2. She marries a professor at UNM.
3. In 1950 she is Dean of Women at the College of St. Joseph (later the University of Albuquerque).
4. In 1951 she returns to Galisteo to manage the family’s 100,000 acre ranch.
5. When her husband dies in 1956 she returns to Albuquerque and becomes absorbed in Civic, cultural, and educational endeavors.
She is considered a prime example of a pioneering NM woman.
Clue: Male (p. 545)
1. He is born in Nov. 1929.
He attends St. Mary's Grade School in Belen for 8 years.
1948 Graduates from Belen High School where he earns varsity letters in
football all four years.
Briefly attends UNM to become a teacher but then decides his destiny is not in the classroom.
2. 1950—He works as a boiler maker for the Santa Fe railroad.
195l—He trains as a Port of Entry Inspector and works for the State of NM for 3 years.
1954-86--works as a mailer for the Albuquerque Publishing Co. for 32 years. His hours are from 8 p.m. to 4 a.m. During regular hours he is President of Westland Security Transportation which involves contract hauling everything from auto parts to newspapers.
l954-64--He is elected and reelected president of Local 56 of the International Mailers' Union.
3. 1970 to present--He serves on the Board of Directors for the Westland
1974—He leads an effort that created the El Valle State Bank in Albuquerque.
Serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors. It grows into the Bank of
Albuquerque and then the Bank of New Mexico.
l975-78--Serves as a member of the Board of Directors for the Greater
Albuquerque Chamber of Commerce.
1977-80--He is Director of the Hispano Chamber of Commerce then serves again from l996-99.
1978-86--Serves on the Board of Directors for the N.M. State Highway
Commission. During this time he is also a Trustee for the University of Albuquerque
4. As a founding member he serves on the Board of Directors of the Bank of
New Mexico for 24 years.
5. 1998--He serves as Director of the Barelas Community Center and continues as Director and Chairman of the Board for Westland Corporation. (Westland Corporation is the only corporation to be created out of a Spanish land grant.)
Despite his many business successes he maintains that his family and extended family including his in-laws are his greatest achievements.
Clue: Female (p. 580)
1. Born in Las Vegas, New Mexico in 1937. Ten years later family moves to New London, Connecticut.
2. 1959--majoring in Spanish, she is awarded a B.A. degree from Connecticut College in New London .
1962--earns an M.A. degree in Latin American Studies from UNM.
3. 1977--She is an instructor at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
4. 1979--awarded PhD in Spanish at the University of Arizona in Tucson and is also as Assistant Prof. at University of Nevada at Reno.
5. 1984--She is on the faculty of UNM as Director of Women's Studies,
Associate Professor of Spanish and then Professor of Spanish. She
receives several Honors, awards and Grants and is a very popular lecturer.
6. Friends and family know her as “Tey.”
Clue: Male (p. 497)
1. He is born in 1918 in Belén where he attends the schools
He drops out of high school due to illness. He works to regain his health and loses interest in school.
2. In 1941 he is drafted and after basic training he is assigned to the 200th Coast Artillery, Battery D.
His unit sails for Hawaii but he soon finds himself in the Philippine Islands, which he comes to describe as “home” in one of his letters.
3. December 7, 1941: The Japanese attack the naval base at Pearl Harbor.
1942: Bataan and Corregidor have fallen.
The entire 200th Coast Artillery is among the 30,000 American soldiers forced to surrender.
He is among those in the Bataan Death March and he survives it.
July 2, 1942: He dies of malaria and dysentery while in his prison camp.
After the war, his casket is interred in the Philippines, which he had referred to as “home.”
Clue: Male (p. 465)
1. He is a teacher who began by working for several years in rural elementary schools.
1930—He receives a B.A. degree from UNM.
1931—M.A. degree from the University of Texas at Austin.
1934—Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley.
1938-39—A Carnegie grant enables him to study economic, social, and political conditions in Taos County, which activity leads to his best known book, Forgotten People.
2. 1937—When he and Arthur Campa make plans to hold the first ever “National Congress of Spanish Speaking Peoples in the USA” the two are vilified as “radicals and communists.” UNM withdraws its support and the conference never takes place.
3. 1940—He is a professor at the University of Texas at Austin.
4. In the 1967 reprint of his Forgotten People he writes: “I had hopes, though very slim ones, that at the very least, a repentant nation would help us lift ourselves by our bootstraps. Instead, it took away our boots.”
5. Toward the end of his life he wouldn’t accept speaking engagements and he became something of a recluse. When he died even his close friends didn’t know about it until they read about it in the newspaper.
Clue: Male (p.564)
1. 1941--He is born in Belen, NM.
Attends St. Mary's Elementary School and graduates from Belen High School is 1960.
Enrolls at UNM with a desire to study government.
Awarded a B.A. degree in 1964 and later a Juris Doctorate from UNM School of Law. He begins to practice, specializing in trial transportation law.
2. He is elected to the New Mexico Constitutional Convention. in 1969.
1970: elected to the State House of Representatives from District 15.
3. 1983: Elected Speaker of the House, a post to which he will be reelected through 1998.
Through the years he serves on many committees of State and national importance, is chosen for many Who's Who selections, public service awards, and is a member of various organizations from the Knights of Columbus to the National Federation of the Blind.
4. He believes in equality even when people have differing ideas on an issue.
He considers ignorance, bigotry, and racism to be his avowed enemies.
5. Friends and family know him as “Raymond.”
Clue: Male (p. 581)
1. Born in 1923 at Jemez Pueblo.
2. Served in the Navy on the USS Corregidor.
3. 1949--attended Eastern New Mexico University.
Later attends Vanderbilt University.
4. 1976--Publishes Pueblo Indian Biographies and The Pueblo Indians.
5. 1982--becomes a popular lecturer in several countries as well as New Mexico.
6. 1986--retires as instructor from UNM.
7. 1992 Publishes Pueblo Nations .
He also assists in several television documentaries.
8. He was the Director for Institute for Pueblo Indian Research and Studies at the Pueblo Indian Cultural Center in Albuquerque.
Clue: Female (p. 608)
1. Was inspired by the career of Conrad Hilton.
Attended the University of Albuquerque.
First president of the Hispanic Women’s Council.
First president of the Hispano Chamber of Commerce.
Ran for the office of Mayor of Albuquerque, unsuccessfully.
She has worked as a shop owner, real estate agent, administrative assistant to the Mayor, freelance writer.
2. Suffered from scarlet fever as a child then later from narcolepsy.
Her father came from Spain, her mother from New Mexico.
At one time her family moved to Midland, Texas.
She had eight children.
She has earned a reputation as a community activist
3. Growing up in Old Town, she attended graduated from San Felipe elementary then St. Mary’s High School.
Her shops in Old Town were “Candles Unlimited” and “Potpourri:”
in Winrock “Wickery & Cookery.”
She is known affectionately as “La Jefa.”
She is married to Vidal Santillanes.
Clue: Male (p. 551)
1. May 15, l937 he is born in Dallas, Texas. He grows up involved in a wide
variety of activities: he works a ranch hand in Wyoming, a horseshoer in
Arizona, movie extra at Warner Brothers, adobe maker and plasterer in
New Mexico, etc.
1958--earns B. A. degree at the University of Texas.
196l--an M.A. at UNM,
1965--Ph.D. from UNM.
2. 1963--He builds a small one-room house for himself in the village of Cerrillos.
In the Hispanic tradition, he makes his own adobes.
In the l970's he adds a couple of rooms one of which is for his continually growing library. For heating he has fireplaces and a wood stove. For lighting he uses kerosene lamps.
In l985 he drills a water well and in the l990's he gets a telephone.
Writing and research are the most important priorities in his life.
He is attracted to New Mexico because "Everywhere you looked there was history". He loved to spend time in "ghost towns".
3. 1965-68--teaches History at UNM.
l967-86--writes several books including:
Two Southwesterners: Charles Lummis and Amado Chaves
Spanish Government in NM
Yesterday in Santa Fe
The Little Lion of the Southwest
Witchcraft in the Southwest
New Mexico: A Bicentennial History
People of the Sun
Southwestern Colonial Ironwork
Albuquerque: A Narrative History
Along the Santa Fe Trail
4. 1986--He was in a head-on collision and suffered a broken neck, broken hip, broken legs, crushed foot and a battered face. He spent more than a year in convalescence.
5. 1987--published Murder on the Santa Fe Trail.
1991--The Last Conquistador - Juan de Oñate and the Settlement of the
l994--Treasure Trails of the Southwest.
Clue: Male (p. 438)
1. He was born in 1859 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
2. By the time he comes to NM he is a practicing attorney, often representing the Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe railroad.
3. He is actively interested in history, archaeology, reclamation and conservation.
4. In 1919 he is elected Director of the Historical Society of NM.
Among his published works is the well known Leading Facts of New Mexico History.
Clue: Male (p. 440)
1. He graduates from high school in 1937 and would like to attend Notre Dame University in Indiana but he can’t afford it.
He receives a scholarship to attend the University of New Mexico and he decides to study Spanish and English.
2. In 1942 he enlists in the Air Force and in time flies 35 combat missions.
He is awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal.
3. In 1949 he earns an M.A. degree in Spanish from UNM and begins teaching there.
1958—He earns a PhD degree from UCLA.
1961—His work Al cielo se sube a pie is published in Mexico then Spain. He becomes an influential literary figure in the Spanish speaking world while he is all but unknown in his native USA.
1978—He is appointed to Spain’s Royal Academy of the Spanish Language.
4. He serves as Chairman of the Modern and Classical Languages Dept. at UNM.
His students know him affectionately as “Uli.”
Clue: Female (p. 570)
1. She is an 11th generation New Mexican, born and raised in Taos, New Mexico.
2. Leader of national stature in the area of election reform,
3. She holds a B.A. Degree in French and Social Science from NM Highlands University.
She is a graduate of the Senior Executives in State and Local Government Program at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
4. She receives various honors and awards, like the prestigious "Excellence in Government Service" Award presented by the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund.
1991 She was appointed Executive Director of the New Mexico Commission on the Status of Women.
She is a recipient of the New Mexico Governor's Annual Outstanding New Mexico Woman Award and many other state and national honors.
She is a member of the Council's 21st Century Foundation.
5. She is NM’s Secretary of State and one of New Mexico's most popular elected officials.
Clue: Male (p. 591)
1. He is born in 1942 and his roots are in Española.
1960—He graduates from Santa Fe High School.
2. By 1962 he is working in California.
1967—He receives a B.A. degree from NMSU then is hired to work for the Dept of the Interior in Washington, D.C.
1968-70—He is now working in Santa Fe and the following year he is elected to be Sergeant-At-Arms of the State Senate.
1970s and 1980s—He attends Southern Methodist University but during these years he holds a number of jobs in NM and California.
3. In 1991 he becomes Deputy director of the Office of Cultural Affairs (OCA) for the State of NM.
1993—He lays the basic concept and initializes the statutory enactment of the Hispanic Cultural Division within the OCA.
He is appointed Interim Director to manage the creation and development of the Hispanic Cultural Center (HCC) to be built in Albuquerque.
He writes the HCC enabling legislation that comes to be known as SB 739.
4. He is the first Director of the Hispanic Cultural Center.
Clue: Male (p. 498)
1. He is from Las Cruces and grows up there.
When of military age he is drafted and assigned as a pilot in the group that comes to be known as the Tuskegee Airmen (who never lose any bombers assigned to their protection).
2. In 1947 he graduates from New Mexico A&M (now New Mexico State University).
His mother was the first African American woman to graduate from A&M.
1951—He graduates from the School of Medicine at Creighton University.
1956—He receives the professional designation of “Master of Surgery.”
3. He succeeded in the American society of his day, “against all odds.”
Clue: Male (p. 435)
1. He was an illustrator, cartoonist, photographer, muralist, and painter when he arrived in Gallup.
He was among the first to promote “art for tourist consumption.”
2. In 1931 he relocated to Albuquerque and opened a business on Central Avenue.
3. In 1938 he moved his shop to Old Town because he saw it was emerging as a tourist center.
He developed the trade in souvenir postcards.
Clue: Male (p. 368)
1. He is born in 1834 in Galisteo.
It is unknown how he acquired his education. He might have been self-taught.
1850s: He teaches school and practices law in alcalde courts. He becomes well known for his oratorical and performative skills.
1860s: He writes for a number of newspapers.
2. By the 1880s he is considered a famous poet-balladeer.
1890s: His orchestra, the Banda Lírica, is in great demand across NM.
Clue: Male (p. 420)
1. He graduates from college around 1880 and teaches school in Doña Ana County for two years. Then in 1882 he is attracted into the newspaper profession.
He travels widely in the USA and Mexico.
2. In 1899 he returns to Las Cruces, becoming the leading journalist in southern New Mexico.
He becomes interested in politics and in time is the Chief Clerk in the Territorial legislature.
3. He is elected to the Constitutional Convention as delegate from Doña Ana County.
He drafts the legislation which incorporates the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo into the State Constitution.
He continues editing newspapers in various towns across the State.
He is described as a skilled orator and poet in both Spanish and English.
Clue: Male (p. 353)
1. He is born in 1865 in the Socorro area but the family moves to Topeka, Kansas in 1866.
In 1872 his mother, sister, and brother die within a month of each other. He returns to live in Socorro.
2. In 1884 he single-handedly defends himself against some 84 Texas cowboys who try to kill him for arresting one of their own. The gunfight lasts 33 hours but he doesn’t suffer a scratch.
3. In 1885 he marries Francisquita Pohmer and they live in Albuquerque.
He studies law then goes into practice. He holds a variety of jobs, from Mayor of Socorro to Superintendent of Schools to District Attorney to newspaper editor to Sheriff to private detective.
He dies in 1945.
Clue: Male (p. 298)
1. Born October 6, 1840.
Graduates from University of Missouri in 1860.
1866—He arrives in Santa Fe and is admitted to the bar in 1867.
Serves in the Territorial House of Representatives in 1868 and becomes
Attorney General in 1869.
1872--Commissioned as U.S. Attorney.
Marries Julia Walz in 1878 and resigns as U.S. Attorney.
2. Elected to the Territorial Council in 1884,1888 and 1890.
February 8, l89l: an assassination attempt is made on him.
He is defeated as Delegate to Congress in 1892 and reelected in 1894.
He is acquitted in disbarment proceedings.
3. 1906--He is the Mayor of Santa Fe.
He is a member of the Constitutional Convention.
1912--He is appointed to the Unite States Senate but is defeated in 1918.
He dies on May 15, 1921.
Clue: Male (p. 377)
1. He is born in Peñasco in 1869.
His family homesteads in the Trinidad, Colorado, area so he attends schools in Trinidad then later at the Jesuit College in Las Vegas. By 1887 he is studying at Notre Dame and he graduates from that University.
2. In 1887 he teaches English in a school in Durango, Mexico.
By 1889 he is in NM and gains a reputation as a writer, orator, and community spokesman.
In 1891 he marries Sofia Barela, daughter of Casimiro Barela.
In 1892 two of his novels appear in print.
3. In 1894 he is admitted to the Bar then practices law in NM and Colorado.
In 1896 he publishes a six-part history of NM.
By 1900 he is living permanently in Trinidad.
He continues writing and publishing until his death in 1948.
Clue: Male (p. 422)
1. He is born in Santa Fe in 1873, attends public schools, and by the age of 14 is publishing his poetry in English and Spanish.
By 1911 he begins work as a Spanish language newspaper editor.
2. While he edits for various newspapers he writes poetry, short stories, translations of famous poets who don’t write in Spanish, and short novels. His literary output is recognized during his lifetime. He becomes known as “El Cantor Neomexicano.”
3. His work is ignored by American literary historians.
He dies in obscurity in El Paso in 1949.
Clue: Male (p. 287)
1. He is born in Atrisco in 1818.
In 1827 the family relocates to Cebolleta (Seboyeta) on the Navajo frontier.
Around 1835 he joins an expedition into Navajo country and when Navajos attack he is wounded seven times. He is the only one who makes it back to Cebolleta.
Around 1837 he is visiting in Atrisco when he hires on with a group of German merchants going to New Orleans. He spends a few months in the big city.
2. In 1839 he leaves NM for St. Louis, Missouri. He stays there until 1841, returning to NM because Texans are invading.
In 1844 he marries M. Vicenta Labadie of Tomé. In time they have three children.
In 1846 an American army takes NM for the USA. He is a citizen of Mexico but he is jailed anyway on charges of treason against the United States. He is acquitted.
3. By 1851 he is active in any number of campaigns against hostile Indians.
(In later life he said that the Ojo de la Monica fight was his fiercest.)
As a stockman he drives sheep to California, becomes well known as a scout, fights on the Union side against the Confederates, relocates to the new village of San Mateo.
He dies in 1889. C.F. Lummis described him as “a courtly Spanish gentleman, brave as a lion, tender as a woman, spotless of honor, and modest as heroic.”
Clue: Male (p. 413)
1. He is born in 1834 and is sent to be educated in Guadalajara, Mexico. He is acclaimed for his academic talents.
When he returns to the family business he works hard, displays much common sense, and is a superb record keeper.
2. By 1856 he is in charge of the family business.
He works with the Spanish firm of Peter Harmony & Nephews out of New York for his importation of goods.
3. By 1859 he is buying massive amounts of trade goods.
He and other Río Abajo merchants develop a loose association to promote business.
His business interests are very diversified. For example, in the 1880s he owns some 500,000 sheep, is involved in mining activities, works with merchants from Mexico, New York, Canada, and England.
He is nicknamed “El Millionario.”
Clue: Male (p. 412)
1. He is regarded as a courageous New Mexican leader, often described as “Father of the statehood movement.”
2. He serves as a Lt. Col. in the Army
He represents Valencia County in the State legislature for 14 terms.
He served as President of the Constitutional Convention.
3. In 1904 he is murdered by unknown assassins at Pino’s Well. (The murderers are never caught.)
Clue: Male (p. 301)
1. 1824—He is born on grandfather's plantation in Tennessee. The family moves to Pads, Texas in 1837.
1854--He goes into the cattle business with partner Stephen Fowler.
186l-65 --He is a beef contractor for the Confederacy.
1872--He buys the Bosque Grande ranch and becomes a permanent resident of NM. By the end of the year he has 20,000 cattle marked with the famous "jinglebob" slit ear.
1875--He is the largest cattle man in southeastern NM with 80,000 head.
He is referred to as "Cattle King of the Pecos".
2. He relocates to South Spring and begins to experiment with different crops to see what grows best in the soil of the Pecos Valley.
1876--He takes action against the rustlers known as the Seven Rivers Gang.
Hostilities between him and small stockmen and rustlers were a contributing
factor to the Lincoln County War.
Clue: Male (p. 372)
1. A journalist and creative writer, he is a political exile from the Porfirio Díaz regime.
He spends eight years in NM Territory and in that time he edits anywhere from 8 to 14 different newspapers.
2. When he writes for a newspaper he uses the pen name Zig-Zag.
His column is “chatty,” cosmopolitan, and generally aimed at female readers.
He writes many poems, essays and short stories.
Clue: Male (p. 358)
1. He is born in 1861 in Frankfort, Kentucky.
He studies law but when his health fails he decides to go West.
In 1883 he marries Emma Morgan and they move to Kingston, NM.
2. In 1887 he moves to Las Cruces and practices law.
He founds his The Independent Democrat newspaper.
In 1889 he begins his close association with Oliver Lee.
He becomes a bitter political enemy of Albert Fountain.
3. Through the years he is appointed to a judgeship, serves as Attorney General, switches political parties, appointed to the Senate (along with Tom Catron) in 1912.
In 1921 he is appointed Secretary of the Interior but in time he is accused of taking bribes and he winds up in prison.
He dies in 1944.
Clue: Males (p. 390)
1. It is believed he was born in New York but he came to NM with the military California Column.
He meets and forms a strong friendship with Tomás Pérez of Mesilla. In time he marries Tomás’ sister, Mariana. In time they have nine children.
2. He returns to civilian life in 1864 though he is commissioned a Captain
in the New Mexico Volunteers in 1865. He is seriously wounded in an encounter with hostile Indians so he retires from the Military. He studies Law and becomes active in politics.
3. He is active in Mesilla politics, founds a newspaper, the Mesilla Valley Independent, a theater group, etc.
In 1878.he interviews Chief Victorio who promises to go to war if the Government orders their removal (for the 3rd time) from their homeland at Ojo Caliente in order to give it to American miners.
He organizes the Mesilla Scouts, most of whom are Hispanic. The Governor orders him to combat the gunmen, mostly from Texas, headed into NM. Their leader, one John Kinney, ridicules him and his “greaser militia.” Kinney is captured without a fight.
4. By 1885 he is considered one of the best lawyers in NM.
He and Tom Catron become bitter political enemies.
In January of 1896 he and his eight-year old son Henry are returning from an indictment hearing against Oliver Lee and William McNew in Lincoln, NM. Both disappear while on the road and their bodies are never found.
Clue: Males (p. 276)
1. They arrive in NM in the 1860s from Hanover, Germany.
They buy out the Jules Fruendenthal mercantile business in Belen.
2. They had to learn both English and Spanish to be successful in business.
They grow to have 6 branch stores and handle hundreds of thousands of dollars in merchandise.
They also own a highly successful livestock business with some 60,000 sheep.
Clue: Male (p. 381)
1. He is born in 1859 in Massachusetts.
By 1881 he is a student at Harvard. He walks throughout New England then publishes some poetry titled “Birch Bark Poems.”
2. He decides to go West. He is in Los Ángeles in 1884. In 1885 he and others start the Los Ángeles Times newspaper. He is City Editor for three years.
3. Probably due to overwork, he suffers a stroke in 1888. He decides to go
to New Mexico to regain his health. He becomes enamored of Hispanic and Pueblo people. In time he writes some 14 books on the Hispanic and Indian Southwest.
4. He meets and becomes friends with Adolph Bandelier. They travel as far as Peru and Bolivia in their adventures.
He dies in 1928.
Clue: Male (p. 361)
1. He is a Democrat and becomes a potent force in changing the political climate of NM.
He becomes well known for his oratorical skills, in English and Spanish.
2. In 1890 he buys the newspaper La Voz del Pueblo and moves it to Las Vegas.
With some friends he organizes the coalition political party El Partido del Pueblo Unido which has populist ideals.
In 1892 he introduces the legislation that creates New Mexico Highlands University and the State mental hospital.
He dies in 1916.
Clue: Male (p. 271)
1. He was probably born in New York.
His mother marries a man named Antrim and the family moves to Silver City, NM.
He likes to read books, sing, and dance.
After his mother dies of tuberculosis he spends much time practicing with the gun, horse, and rope.
He works as a drifter cowboy.
2. He becomes fluent in the Spanish language.
A blacksmith named Francis Cahill picks a fight with him and Cahill is shot.
He flees to NM where he hooks up with the Jesse Evans gang.
He says his name is “William Bonney.”
3. He moves to Lincoln, NM.
He still loves to dance, plays poker, is intelligent.
He signs on to work at the Tunstall Ranch.
His nickname becomes “Billy the Kid.”
Clue: Male (p. 398)
1. He is born in 1877 in Barcelona, Spain.
By 1901 he is living in Taos where he publishes the Revista de Taos newspaper, which grows to have some 5,000 subscribers.
2. In 1906 he marries Mariquita Valdez of Taos.
3. In 1912 he is appointed Taos County Superintendent.
During his career he builds some 40 new schools, including the first high school.
Clue: Male (p. 362)
1. He is born in Albuquerque in 1858.
He graduates from St. Michael’s College and works as assistant postmaster in Santa Fe.
By 1884 he is working as a Court interpreter.
2. In 1888 he founds La Voz del Pueblo newspaper with Enrique Salazar.
In 1893 he marries Florence Maes and in time they have five children.
In 1920 he is elected to Congress on the Republican ticket.
Clue: Male (p. 374)
1. He comes to NM as an exile from the Díaz regime in Mexico and founds a newspaper in Socorro. In time he moves it to Las Vegas.
1892: He promotes th formation of an Hispanic Press Association and is elected its first president.
2. In 1893 he is arrested in el Paso on charges of supply arms to the freedom fighters combating Díaz in Mexico. He is acquitted but put under surveillance.
In 1894 the Texas Rangers arrest him on charges of organizing an armed invasionary force on American territory. He is sentenced to three years in prison.
Clue: Male (p. 371)
1. In 1889 he is writing from Washington, D.C. He writes many short stories as well as journalistic articles.
In 1890 he is secretary to Delegate Antonio Joseph. When Congress is not in session he works for newspapers in Mora County.
2. In 1907 he moves to El Paso and founds the Revista Ilustrada (Illustrated Magazine) which he will publish until shortly before his death in 1933.
The Revista becomes the most famous magazine in the history of NM.
Clue: Male (p. 320)
1. He is born in 1853.
He and his brothers receive excellent educations and in time they become lawyers.
In the 1870s he begins to see that that NM history is “slanted and biased” against Hispanic people. He does much research and writes what he considers to be the truth.
2. He is married three times but all his wives die, leaving him with children to raise.
He is now a highly respected attorney.
3. He is drawn into the writing of History. He uses his own resources to uncover primary archival sources.
He disputes works like those written by Ralph E. Twitchell.
In 1911 he publishes The Illustrated History of New Mexico (Historia Ilustrada de Nuevo Mexico) in the Spanish language. It contains numerous profile biographies of well known NM men and women.
In 1912 he hires a professional translator to put his Historia Ilustrada into the English language.
Clue: Male (p. 386)
1. He is born in Santa Fe around 1870 and is educated at St. Michael’s College.
He is attracted to journalism as a career and by 1888 he and Nestor Montoya found La Voz del Pueblo (The People’s Voice) in Santa Fe.
By 1894 he has a strong voice in NM politics.
2. In 1901 he marries Agueda López from Las Vegas, NM.
In 1910 he is appointed to the federal Office of Land Management at Fort Sumner.
3. He believes that the study of NM history is crucial because NM children need native history written through native eyes “so all is not lost and relegated to darkness…”
He dies in 1914.
Clue: Male (p. 388)
1. He is born in 1856 in Guadalajara, Mexico.
In time he joins the Army and gets to the rank of Captain. When he leaves the Military he studies the Fine Arts, especially painting.
2. In 1888 he moves to El Paso, works as a journalist, marries Luz Alderete from Las Cruces (in time they have ten children), becomes an American citizen.
3. He founds newspapers in Santa Fe, Socorro, Albuquerque, and Mora. He also opens a theater in Mora in 1898.
Clue: Male (p. 382)
1. He is born in 1851 and is educated at St. Michael’s College.
He is attracted to writing, especially poetry.
He writes under the pen name of X.X.X. (Doris Meyer describes him as one of the “individuals of powerful intellect and literary presence” in NM.
He stresses the importance of Hispanic unity in the face of the assaults being made on Hispanic New Mexicans.
2. On the eve of statehood in 1911 he writes a formal poem titled “To New Mexico.”
In 1917 there is an assassination attempt made on his life. It happens again three months later. The 67-year old man foils his attackers both times.
In 1918 he writes an editorial in which he states that, considering realities, New Mexicans must be their own knowledgeable historians.
Clue: Male (p. 338)
1. 1854--He comes under the tutelage of Padre Guerin and assists the priest
in his duties and visits to outlying missions of the Mora Parish.
1872--He travels to Paris to enter the Seminary of St. Suplice, completes
his studies in 1876.
1877--He decides not to take Holy Orders, returns to Mora and is appointed to political office.
1879--He founds La Estrella de Mora newspaper.
2. 1884--He moves to Trinidad, Colorado, where he helps found the Asociación de Mutuo Adelantamiento to assist in advancing southern Colorado's Hispanic community.
1889--He is elected to represent Mora in the Constitutional Convention.
3. 1892--He delivers a famous speech in which he attacks Protestant bigotry
that is targeting Catholic New Mexicans by accusing them of being
"victims of their own heritage--their Catholicism, their environment and their own leaders."
1897--He is living in Mora County where he establishes a private school in Wagon Mound.
Clue: Male (p. 241)
1. At the age of 13 he is captured in Sonora, Mexico, by a band of Apaches led by the famous Mangas Coloradas.
He is traded to a Navajo family and given the name Sóós.
2. In 1860 he is in the Ft. Defiance area when he is offered a job in the American Army as an interpreter. He accepts.
3. In 1864 the Navajos are deported to the Bosque Redondo concentration camp and he goes with them.
In 1868 he accompanies Chief Barboncito to Washington D.C. for an interview with President Johnson, who decides the Navajos can be returned to their native lands.
4. He settles his family east of Tohatchi, NM.
He continues work as interpreter and he also helps to write down Navajo stories and legends.
Clue: Male (p. 245)
1. He was born in Alabama and later the family moves to Louisiana .where his father runs a small plantation that is destroyed during the Civil War.
In 1869 he is working as a cowboy in Texas.
Around 1875 he is a buffalo-hide hunter on the plains.
2. In 1878 he settles at Ft. Sumner.
He is sociable, easy-going, likes good conversation.
He marries Apolinaria Gutiérrez.
3. In 1880 he is elected Sheriff and goes on to become one of the most famous lawmen in the West.
Clue: Male (p. 239)
1. Has been described as a “Hero in Two Worlds.”
Born in Santa Fe, his mother wishes that he be raised for the priesthood.
As he grows up, his idol becomes Col. Antonio Vizcarra, his brother-in-law.
He decides he wants a career in the military instead of the priesthood.
2. His sister sends him to a seminary in Durango, Mexico. He is miserable.
Vizcarra goes to see him but he dies in a cholera epidemic.
He remains at the seminary and after ordination is assigned to El Paso where he would remain for 50 years.
3. Texans invade NM, are captured by Gov. Armijo and they are sent to Mexico City. The El Paso priest helps the ragged, starving Texans.
4. Col. Alexander Doniphan seizes El Paso for the USA and arrests the priest.
He believes the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is much too harsh so he works to repatriate New Mexicans back to Mexican soil until American authorities put a stop to his efforts.
He becomes famous as a mediator, friend of the poor, and he raises any number of orphans in his home.
He finally dies of cancer.
Clue: Male (p. 184)
1. He is born in 1790, the youngest of 12 children.
In 1819 he marries Trinidad Gabaldon, “the belle of New Mexico.” In time they adopt three orphan girls.
2. In 1827 he becomes Governor of NM, a position in which he will serve three times.
In 1841 he leads in the capture of invading Texans.
In 1846 he disbands the militia instead of fighting the invading Americans.
3. In 1847 he sells his Albuquerque home which is later converted into the La Fonda Hotel.
He dies in 1853 in his home in Lemitar and is honored by the Legislative Assembly.
Clue: Male (p. 181)
1. He is born in Kentucky in 1809 then the family moves to Missouri.
He is apprenticed to a saddle maker but in a few years joins a caravan going to Santa Fe. He goes to Taos and it becomes his new home town.
2. By 1830 he is living the life of a mountain man, fur trapper, and hunter for the Bent brothers.
He marries Josefa Jaramillo in a ceremony conducted by Padre Martínez.
3. He becomes a guide for the Frémont Expedition of 1844.
He is pressed into service when Gen. Kearny is on his way to “take California from the Mexicans.”
After the Mexican War he works as an Indian Agent.
4. During the Civil War he commands the 1st NM Cavalry Volunteers against the Confederates.
He leads a military expedition against the Navajo people.
He dies one month after the death of his wife.
Clue: Male (p. 214)
1. He is born in 1815 in Abiquiú.
At the age of fifteen he is studying in the school of Fr. Martínez. In 1840 he is ordained into the priesthood. In 1845 he becomes the pastor in Albuquerque.
2. By 1850 his personal worth is around $8,000.
He takes into his home and raises a number of orphans.
3. French religious leaders target native NM priests like him, charging them with immorality, saying the children in their households aren’t orphans but rather their illegitimate children.
He develops commercial enterprises and in time is elected Delegate to Congress. He later serves in the Territorial Legislature.
4. In time he enters the Episcopal Church and marries.
Clue: Male (p. 196)
1. He is born into the Bit’ahni clan and goes into his first battle at the age of seventeen.
His father-in-law is the famous Narbona. When Americans kill him he leads many raids against them. Other Navajo leaders speak for peace but he refuses because he feels Americans can’t be trusted. He continues to raid.
2. Tired of fighting and hiding, he surrenders and is deported to the Bosque Redondo concentration camp.
In 1876 he visits with President Ulysses S. Grant in Washington.
3. In 1882 he send two of his son to the Carlisle, Pennsylvania Indian school. When one of his sons dies he seems to give up on life
He dies in 1893.
Clue: Female (p. 48)
1. She is born María Coronel y Arana in northern Spain in 1602. As she is growing up her mother converts her home into a convent for nuns.
In 1618 she becomes a Conceptionist nun.
2. In 1620 she reveals to her confessor that somehow she is being transported to New Mexico to help with the conversion of the Indians.
Back in NM Fr. Alonso de Benavides is instructed to investigate these “visits” and, sure enough, Jumano Indians visiting Isleta Pueblo say they have been visited by a “Lady in Blue.”
3. Fr. Benavides returns to Spain and questions her for two weeks. She accurately describes NM missionaries and NM landscape, though she affirms she has never left the convent.
4. She writes a four volume series of books titled The Mystical City of God.
She dies in 1665.
Clue: Male (p. 134)
1. He is born into a military family in 1735 in the village of Fronteras in Sonora, Mexico.
At the age of 18 he enlists in the Army and by 1760 he is given command of the Tubac, Arizona, presidio.
He marries Ana de Serrano.
He leads expedition against the warlike Apaches and Seris.
2. In 1774 he leads an expedition to find a land route from Arizona to California. Fr. Garcés is in the group and the historic route is blazed.
Now he is instructed to gather colonists and lead them to San Francisco, which he does.
3. In 1777 he is appointed Governor of New Mexico, which is on the verge of extinction due to Comanche raids.
He defeats Chief Cuerno Verde in battle and with Chief Ecueracapa the lasting Comanche Peace is made.
He dies in 1788.
Clue: Male (p. 166)
1. He is born in 1795 in Santa Fe.
In 1815 he marries M. Josefa Lucero. They live in Santa Fe, in an area where various woodcarvers have their studios. He is attracted to carving.
2. In 1825 he creates an altarpiece for the church at Picurís Pueblo. It is his first really important work as a santero. (During his lifetime he creates twelve different altarpieces, a tremendous achievement.)
3. Josefa dies in 1832 so he moves his family to Córdova.
In time he marries the widow Josefa Córdova.
His santero creations earn him a magnificent reputation in NM.
He dies in 1862, his death being considered as the end of the classic period of NM Santero Art.
Clue: Male (p. 43)
1. He is born in 1807 in the Tótsohnii clan.
He begins to learn the Spanish language from various captives.
Comanche raiders target his band.
Navajo warriors ride against Cebolleta, Cochití, Sandía, etc.
2. A peace treaty is signed in 1819 and his people settle on the Turquoise Mountain (Mt. San Mateo, now Mt. Taylor). Another treaty is signed in 1822 but life continues as raid and counter-raid.
He takes part in the 1834 raid against San Fernández de Taos.
3. Because his band lives close to Cebolleta, his people are attacked by Hispanics and often by other Navajos who consider his people to be traitors.
Americans take over the country in 1846.
By 1853 he is working as a guide for the U.S. Government.
His band is attacked by Apaches then by Utes. Some of his warriors now ride as guides for the Army.
He dies after a bad fall from a half-broken horse.
Clue: Male (p. 147)
1. He is born in 1794 in the Pueblo Quemado land grant.
In 1806 he is a member of the militia but he has almost no arms or equipment.
In 1817 he married Ramona Mondragón and in time they have ten children.
2. He works in the world of commerce transporting goods to and from towns in Mexico.
He becomes a wealthy pillar of the community. He owns much land, many houses, santos, firearms, 40 teams of oxen, and many stock animals.
At his death in 1858 he is worth some $9,243.
He is considered a model NM “patrón.”
Clue: Male (p. 116)
1. He arrives in NM in 1750 and begins a 30-year business career.
In 1755 he marries Josefa Apolonia Baca, daughter of Pajarito sheepman Antonio Baca.
2. Active in Church affairs, he serves as syndic for the Franciscans as of 1777. He is also the official collector of tithes for the Bishop of Durango.
3. He becomes one of the major sheep kings of NM. At the time of his death in 1785 he owns three large sheep ranches.
Clue: Male (p. 43)
1. He is born in Spain in 1582. He is a contemporary of dramatist Lope de Vega.
He takes his Franciscan vows in 1609 and is recruited to NM (1612) by Fray Isidro Ordoñez. In a short time he has serious disagreements with Ordoñez.
2. In 1621 he is assigned to the large Pecos Pueblo. He resumes construction of the church in 1622.
The Pecos church is completed by 1625. It is a marvelous achievement, the largest in NM.
3. He works to convert the Vaquero Apaches who come to Pecos to trade.
By 1647 he is still active in his New Mexican ministry.
He writes to the King that Governors of the province are interfering with Christianization efforts.
Clue: Male (p. 162)
1. He is born in Taos around 1812. (The town is the NM center for mountain men and the fur trade.)
He is attracted to the life of mountain men and the fur trade.
In 1843 he is part of the Frémont Expedition.
He works/lives in various parts of NM, Utah, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado.
2. When American troops are sent against the Mormons in Utah he is one of the guides for Capt. Randolph B. Marcy. He can speak “French, Spanish, English, and several Indian languages.”
3. By 1858 he is living by the banks of the Big Thompson River. He moves to Miraville in 1860 and operates a toll bridge.
He becomes one of the wealthiest men in the area.
Clue: Male (p. 121)
1. He is born in the Tachii’nii clan. He gets his first pony at the age of six.
Navajo camps are raided by Utes, Lagunas, and Acomas. Navajos, including his father, retaliate with raids of their own, including Spanish settlements in the Río Puerco and Río Grande.
He takes up the raiding trail at the age of 16.
2. By 1800 he is selected as leader of his band.
Spanish settlers move into the Cebolleta country. A thousand warriors attack but they are unable to destroy the settlement.
With enemies everywhere he sees that only the path of peace will enable his people to survive. In 1819 he makes a peace treaty with the Spanish New Mexicans. He continues to work for peace.
3. In 1846 he is invited to come in and talk peace with a new people, the Americans. A treaty is signed with Col. Alexander Doniphan.
During a council with Lt. Col. John M. Washington in 1849 a dispute breaks out over a horse and in the ensuing fire fight he is killed by soldiers.
Clue: Male (p. 19)
1. His father arrived in Mexico from Spain in 1524. He works with a steady determination and in time becomes one of the founders of Zacatecas with its rich silver mines.
2. He is born in Zacatecas and acquires a good education. His family is rich but he is not spoiled. He accompanies his father in expeditions against the cannibalistic Chichimecas.
3. In 1588 he marries Isabel de Tolosa Cortés Moctezuma. In time they have a son and a daughter.
In 1595 he signs a contract for the colonization of New Mexico.
Clue: Male (p. 51)
1. He arrives in NM in 1610. (The period from 1610 to 1638 is considered the “Golden Age” of Franciscan missions in NM.)
In 1616 he is selected as Franciscan Custodian for NM. He now supervises ten mission centers (until 1621).
He is out of NM from 1626-29.
2. Upon his return to NM in 1629 he is once again elected Custodian. He has 46 friars ministering to some 35,000 Christian Indians at some 35 missions/visitas.
3. In 1635 he petitions King Philip III to free all Christian Pueblo Indians from paying tribute or rendering service without pay. The King so decrees.
He dies in 1638.
Clue: Male (. 70)
1. He is baptized in Madrid, Spain, in 1643.
Through the centuries his ancestors had been “warrior knights, bishops, advisers to kings, and friends of the saints.”
His mother dies when he was five years old.
2. (His father sails to the New World in 1650. He dies there in 1666.) The family continues to live in Madrid.
He attends the University of Valladolid.
In 1664 he marries Beatriz Pimentel de Prado Vélez de Olazábal. In time they have five children.
3. In 1772 he gets an appointment to office in the New World.
In 1687 he is appointed Governor of New Mexico. Due to various governmental delays, he doesn’t arrive in El Paso until 1692.
Clue: Male (p. 143)
1. He is born in Lyons, France.
In the 1770s he is in the Illinois country. He works as a gunsmith.
In 1786 he is in San Antonio, Texas, and is hired to blaze a trail to Santa Fe, which he does.
2. In 1788-89 he blazes a different trail from Santa Fe to New Orleans to San Antonio.
In 1791 he is in Santa Fe working as an interpreter.
In 1792 he blazes a trail to St. Louis, Missouri. In time it becomes known as the “Santa Fe Trail.”
He is now considered as the greatest trail blazer in the history of the Southwest.
Match the number column with the letter column. [This activity is based on information provided in NAME THE EVENT.]
1. Buffalo Soldiers [H] A. murdered
2. Founded in 1901 [R] B. NM becomes a State
3. Jim White [W] C. Santa Fe Fiesta
4. Alvarado Hotel [Y] D. Founded College of St. Joseph
5. J. Francisco Chavez [A] E. Shot in the back
6. President T. Roosevelt [K] F. Cartoonist
7. Founder of Blackdom [M] G. Indian lands wanted
8. Pat Garrett [E] H. 9th Cavalry
9. José E. Fernández [T] I. Pojoaque
10. January 6, 1912 [B] J. right to vote
11. NAACP [O] K. Blue Lake
12. Restarted in 1918 [C] L. Patrociño Barela
13. Santana Peña [X] M. Francis Boyer
14. Sisters of Charity [D] N. Mabel Dodge
15. Bill Mauldin [F] O. First NM chapter in 1915
16. Women, 1920 [J] P. George I. Sanchez
17. Bursum Bill [G] Q. Origins of NM Families
18. Obras [V] R. Blackdom
19. Tony Luhan [N] S. Army Air Depot
20. Refounded in 1932 [I] T. Biography of Casimiro Barela
21. “discovery of the year” [L] U. 200th Coast Artillery
22. Forgotten People [P] V. Felipe M. Chacón
23. genealogy [Q] W. Carlsbad Caverns
24. Kirtland AFB [S] X. San Ildefonso potter
26. Holloman AFB [P] A. Cannon AFB
27. Bilingual skills [L] B. Japanese Americans
28. Arabs, Comanches,
Hispanic NM [R] C. Roswell Incident
29. Matachines [K] D. Amerindian voting rights
30. Atomic bomb [N] E. Boys Ranch
31. Empire Zinc strike [M] F. Little Brothers of the
32. Uranium [Q] G. Literary Folklore of the SW
33. Clovis [A] H. Georgia Lusk
34. First TV station [W] I. Mimbres pottery design
35. forest fire [V] J. Fabiola Cabeza de Baca
36. White Sands Range [Y] K. Flavia Waters Champe
37. NM chile [S] L. Navajo Code Talkers
38. Sarafina Tafoya [T] M. “Salt of the Earth” movie
39. Brother Mathias [F] N. Manhattan Project
40. botanists [U] O. Great River
41. We Fed Them Cactus [J] P. Alamogordo
42. UFO [C] Q. Paddy Martinez
43. Paul Horgan [O] R. greatest horsemen
44. “hot” celebration [X] S. Big Jim
45. Internment camps [B] T. pottery
46. Aurora Lucero [G] U. Paul Bosland, Ray Nakayama
47. Miguel Trujillo [D] V. Smokey Bear
48. Lucy Martin Lewis [I] W. KOB
49. First female Rep. [H] X. Hatch Chile Festival
50. Boys Town [E] Y. Created in 1945
51. Cleofas Jaramillo [U] A. Popular Arts of Spanish NM
52. Los Caballeros [Q] B. Lonnie Zamora
53. Paul Horgan [K] C. Cordova
54. Gadsden Museum [W] D. The Pit
55. El Nuevo Mexicano [T] E. Tony Hillerman
56. Woodcarving center [C] F. SW Hispanic Research Institute
57. Carla & Ross Ward [Y] G. Balloon Fiesta
58. Reies López Tijerina [M] H. N. Scott Momaday
59. UFO in Socorro [B] I. Peter Hurd
60. Sasebo, Japan [X] J. Chairman, AIPC
61. Tierra Amarilla [P] K. Grreat River
62. UNM [D] L. Crime Stoppers
63. House Made of Dawn [H] M. Alianza Federal de Mercedes
64. NMSU [V] N. Very Large Array
65. The Blessing Way [E] O. Vargas Project
66. Rudy Anaya [R] P. Courthouse Raid
67. Albuquerque [G] Q. De Vargas
68. E. Boyd [A] R. Bless Me, Ultima
69. SHRI [F] S. Ambassador to Honduras
70. Dr. John Kessell [O] T. Pedro R. Ortega, editor
71. Delfine Lovato [J] U. Romance of a Little Village Girl
72. telescopes [N] V. Pan American Center
73. Greg MacAleese [L] W. Aurelio & Elizabeth Armendáriz
74. Mari-Luci Jaramillo [S] X. ABQ. Sister City
75. Henriette Wyeth [I] Y. Tinker Town Museum
76. Malcolm Ebright [K] A. Carlos LoPopolo
77. Fight Back [R] B. women in NM history
78. First female governor [T] C. Joe Sando
79. most popular Museum [O] D. Hispanic Music Association
80. symbol of authority [V] E. Bobby Newcombe
81. National Historic Trail [M] F. Bruce King
82. “feasibility study” [Y] G. Johnny Tapia, Danny Romero
83. New Mexico Chronicles [A] H. El corrido de don Juan de Oñate
84. tourists [U] I. You make it up.
85. NM music [D] J. Emilio Naranjo
86. signed Center legislation [F] K. Land grant history
87. Ana Pacheco [P] L. Bill Richardson
88. matanza feast [X] M. Santa Fe Trail
89. Ambassador to UN [Q] N. J.P. Martínez, J.E. Valdez
90. largest land owner [W] O. Natural History & Science
91. boxing title holders [G] P. La Herencia del Norte
92. Angel Espinoza [H] Q. Bill Richardson
93. Pueblo Nations [C] R. Simon J. Ortiz
94. “All State” athlete [E] S. “combat defamation”
95. UN Ambassador [L] T. Vera Olguin Williamson
96. Nuestras Mujeres [B] U. Canada, Germany, Mexico
97. Medal of Honor [N] V. silver-crowned canes
98. Oñate Monument [J] W. Federal Government
99. NMHCPL [S] X. Prem Gabaldon
100. What goes here? [I] Y. Alfonso “Al” Otero
1. 1st U.S. Attorney [V] A. Ft. Union
2. Laguna Pueblo school [K] B. Nampeyo
3. Lobo Blanco [Q] C. $4,000 loan
4. rich commerce on [W] D. French religious
5. 1855: Utes attack because of [N] E. Pueblo Indians
6. 1st Surveyor General [J] F. African Americans
7. Indian Agent E.A. Graves [P] G. J. Francisco Chavez
8. W.W.H. Davis [X] H. bison
9. Presby. (first Protestant) minister [O] I. Manuel A. Chavez
10. excommunicated [T] J. William Pelham
11. Rafaél Chacon [D] K. Samuel Gorman
12. Plaza de los Leones [U] L. Horgan and Chavez
13. Donation Act of 1854 [S] M. Billy the Kid
14. oldest chartered secondary sch. [Y] N. smallpox in blankets
15. Mary Bowie [G] O. W.J. Kephardt
16. buffalo [H] P. death for NM Indians
17. Hopi pottery [B] Q. Apache chief
18. Lamy & Machebeuf [D] R. Juanita Paéz
19. Henry McCarty [M] S. land
20. Las Vegas area [A] T. Padre Martinez
21. 1854: vote denied to [E] U. Walsenburg
22. “Chief of Scouts” [I] V. W.W.H. Davis
23. 1856 law targeted [F] W. Santa Fe Trail
24. Disagree on history [L] X. embezzlement
25. Samuel Jacob Spiegelberg [C] Y. St. Michael’s 
26. El Millionario [R] A. Fraud
27. founder of Trinidad, Co. [I] B. José Tafoya
28 Jewish celebration [W] C. Comanchero
29. Roque Candelaria [N] D. John Chisum
30. Valverde, Glorieta [L] E. Cohepa
31. Navajos deported [P] F. Cong. Medal of Honor
32. La Revista Católica [Q] G. Pablo Abeita
33. saved archives [X] H. Gov. W.A. Pile
34. race hatred [T] I. Felipe Baca
35. Gen. James Carleton [U] J. Apache chief
36. Isleta Pueblo [G] K. elaborate tinwork
37. Comanche chief [E] L. Civil War battles
38. tried to destroy archives [H] M. Adolph Bandelier
39. last to surrender [V] N. Cabinet maker
40. Prince of Comancheros [B] O. Thomas B. Catron
41. Victorio [J] P. Bosque Redondo
42. Manuel Salazar [Y] Q. Rev. Donato Gasparri
43. Río Abajo workshop [K] R. Felipe Chavez
44. Territorial land history [A] S. Homestead entries
45. biggest land owner [O] T. Horrell War
46. fraud [S] U. California Column
47. Vicente Romero [C] V. Kwahadi Comanches
48. ethnologist [M] W. Yom Kippur
49. Cattle king [D] X. Eleuterio Barela
50. Francis Oliver [F] Y. NM’s first novelist
51. Medal of Honor [R] A. Murphy, Dolan, Riley
52. race hatred [O] B. Comanche chief
53. “Comancheros are dogs” [T] C. Farmington, NM
54. Archbishop in 1875 [J] D. Chas. Ilfeld & Co.
55. La Placita [W] E. John Becker
56. Sotero Ortiz [Q] F. Bandelier’s novel
57. greatest gunfight [U] G. Lummis and Bandelier
58. largest mercantile business [D] H. “rings”
59. reservation by Ruidoso [X] I.. reservation in northern NM
60. “curse of NM” [H] J. Jean B. Lamy
61. first synagogue in NM [N] K. “Penitente Hunters”
62. Mow-way [B] L. “Land Stealing in NM”
63. Ann Vielstitch [E] M. Solomon Bibo
64. good friends [G] N. Temple Montefiore
65. Jicarilla Apache [I] O. Horrell War
66. “The House” [A] P. Adolf Didier
67. North American Review [L] Q. San Juan Pueblo
68. Belén winery [P] R. Eben Stanley
69. “Big Frank” [K] S. Río Grande blanket
70. Gov. of Acoma [M] T. SF Weekly Post
71. Tomé priest [Y] U. Elfego Baca
72. William & Simeon Hendrickson [C] V. Herrera brothers of LV
73. land grant activists [V] W. Lincoln
74. eight pointed star [S] X. Mescalero Apache
75. The Delight Makers [F] Y. Juan B. Railliere
76. Court of [K] A. “A New Mexico David”
77. Society of Bandits [P] B. murdered
78. native–born Gov. [O] C. Alvarado
79. Taos Society of Artists [N] D. Porfirio Gonzales
80. fought destruction of SF bldgs. [J] E. independence
81. Blackdom [Q] F. Cosme Herrera
82. break tribal ties [T] G. Belén, NM
83. opponent of NM statehood [V] H. La Banda Lírica
84. “NM and its Illustrious Men” [W] I. Pres. T. Roosevelt
85. Fred Harvey hotel [C] J. Carlos Vierra
86. Religious Crimes Code [R] K. Private Land Claims
87. basic to NM economy [S] L. Rough Riders
88. Charles F. Lummis [A] M. Jim White
89. takeover of Blue Lake [I] N. “Los ocho pintores”
90. R.W. Larson [U] O. Miguel Otero
91. Jacona land grant [F] P. Vicente Silva
92. History of a Captive [D] Q. Francis Boyer
93. famous trains [Y] R. Protestant missionaries
94. NM ranchero lifestyle [E] S. sheep
95. for African-Americans [X] T. boarding school
96. J.F. Chaves and A. Fountain [B] U. NM statehood
97. Carlsbad Caverns [M] V. Sen. A.J. Beveridge
98. “Hub City” [G] W. La Opinión Publica
99. 1st U.S. Vol. Cavalry [L] X. Blackdom
100. J.M. Hilario Alaríd [H] Y. Super Chief, El Capitán
1. CW on NM soil [L] A. Kearny Code
2. NM garden spot [N] B. Organic Act of 1850
3. Santa Fe Trail record [G] C. Marcy
4. Mt. San Mateo [I] D. repatriation to Mexico
5. NM a Territory [B] E. Gabriel Jeantet
6. “not fit to be free people” [O] F. Santa Fe
7. La Placita [J] G. Francis X. Aubry
8. 1st SW fort [C] H. Cebolleteños
9. kidnappers [H] I. Mt. Taylor
10. new laws [A] J. Lincoln, NM
11. NM rejected [M] K. Supt. of Indian Affairs
12. James S. Calhoun [K] L. Battle of Brazitos
13. Fr. Ramón Ortiz [D] M. Black slavery
14. Taos cabinetmaker [E] N. Río Puerco area
15. 1st Post Office [F] O. Charles Bent
1. seventeen sons [H] A. beaver pelts
2. 1st native Gov. [T] B. Carlos Beaubien
3. brotherhood lodge [R] C. “Missouri” mule
4. “new trade era” [J] D. three terms as Gov.
5. Americans congregated [N] E. Brothers of our Father Jesus
6. threat from hostiles [S] F. Kendall, Gregg, Davis
7. Antonio Armijo [U] G. U.S. Cavalry created
8. 1st book printed by [W] H. María Luis Baca
9. Pony Express [Y] I. Dawn of Liberty
10. Josefa Jaramillo [O] J. Manuel S. Escudero
11. USA [Q] K. Texan-Santa Fe expedition
12. Penitentes [E] L. Luz Beaubien
13. Manuel Armijo [D] M. Diego Archuleta
14. 1829 [G] N Taos
15. “share owning of sheep” [X] O. Kit Carson
16. French-Canadian [B] P. Gertrudis Barceló
17. hated Gov. Armijo [F] Q invades NM in 1846
18. professional soldier [M] R. morada
19. 1st NM newspaper [I] S. circle the wagons
20. La Tules [P] T. Francisco X. Chávez
21. invaded NM in 1841 [K] U. Old Spanish Trail
22. NM stock animal [C] V. customary law
23. NM legal system [V] W. Fr. Martinez
24. Lucien Maxwell [L] X. partido system
25. “hairy banknotes” [A] Y. mail to Mexico
1. Doña Eufemia [J] A. 1601 desertion
2. wrote 1st history [W] B. Juan de Oñate
3. Zaldívar [O] C. none sentenced
4. Acoma war leader [Q] D. Franciscans
5. 1st Christian colony [R] E. supply caravan
6. weakened NM colony [A] F. Corn, beans, squash
7. 1ST Euro expedition in NM [M] G. Father Custos for NM
8. Inscription Rock [S] H. bison/buffalo
9. weaving [V] I. Historia de la Nueva Mexico
10. Estevan de Perea [G] J. female leader
11. death after Acoma war [C] K. feuding
12. Pueblo governor [Y] L. written in epic poem form
13. NM missions [T] M. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
14. in/out of NM [E] N. gamuza (buckskin)
15. Pecos church [X] O. brothers Juan & Vicente
16. first ever hunt [H] P. Protector of the Indians
17. blue robes [D] Q. Zutucapán
18. Church & State [K] R. San Juan de los Caballeros
19. Indian welfare [P] S. El Morro
20. founder of Euro NM [B] T. Community Colleges
21. 1610 [I] U. drought
22. common natural disaster [U] V. Blankets, tube socks
23. colonists’ dress [N] W. Gaspar de Villagrá
24. three main crops [F] X. Andrés Juarez
25. Historia de Nuevo Mexico [L] Y. Cane
26. St. Lawrence Day Massacre [T] A. Santa Cruz
27. NM Gov. in 1693 [Q] B. genízaros
28 revenge extermination [K] C. Segesser Hide Painting
29. Juan de Ye [G] D. Important trading partners
30. founded in 1703 [R] E. acequias/ditches
31. Dead Man’s Route [M] F. Cuerno Verde
32. 1st native priest [X] G. murdered by the Taos
33. denounced to Inquisition [N] H. Old Spanish Trail
34. Popé [W] I. Cartographer, santero, painter
35. Dinétah [U] J. Benito Crespo
36. “lifeblood of NM” [E] K. Never happened to Indians
37. Comanches [D] L. “ravaged NM”
38. enemy of Spanish NM [F] M. La Jornada del Muerto
39. Bernardo Miera y Pacheco [I] N. Miguel de Quintana
40. stalwart allies [Y] O. Taos
41. Villasur Expedition [C] P. Pedro Vial
42. frontier hero [V] Q. Diego de Vargas
43. 1st bishop in NM [J] R. Atrisco
44. acculturated (plains) Indians [B] S. Spanish-born friars
45. smallpox [L] T. Pueblo Revolt
46. Gachupines [S] U. Navajoland
47. most popular trade fair [O] V. Juan Bautista de Anza
48. greatest SW trailblazer [P] W. “Death to all Christians!.”
49. Domínguez-Escalante [H] X. Santiago Roybal
50. refounded after Santa Fe [A] Y. Vargas & Juan de Ye
51. Comanche peace chief [H] A. never owned slaves
52. Hispanic buffalo lancers [R] B. Juan Candelaria
53. Santa Rita Mine [W] C. 1805
54. caravan gathering point [P] D. Comancheros
55. 1800 in NM [J] E. Anza & Ecueracapa
56. paid missionary bills [Y] F. independence from Spain
57. wild horse cowboys [M] G. Pedro B. Pino
58. Comanche Peace [E] H. Ecueracapa
59. vaccination [C] I.. Zebulon M. Pike
60. “rare, truly indigenous” [X] J. more women than men
61. pioneering sheep rancher [B] K. 1000 Navajo warriors
62. religious shrine [V] L. Atrisco
63. Account of Disorders in NM [T] M. mesteñeros
64. traders for plains Indians [D] N. Bernardino de Sena
65. Sopeña & Irigoyen [U] O. Fr. Francisco A Domínguez
66. they displaced Apaches [S] P. La Joya de Sevilleta
67. American expedition [I] Q. Trujillo
68. wrote description of missions [O] R. Ciboleros
69. birthplace of Manuel A. Chaves [L] S. Comanches
70. “93% of NM” [A] T. Fr. Juan Agustín de Morfi
71. delegate to Sp. Parliament [G] U. Franciscans
72. Sena Plaza [N] V. Santuario de Chimayo
73. Sept. 27, 1821 [F] W. J. Manuel Carrasco
74. family of weavers [Q] X. Santero Art
75. “thirty Cebolleta families” [K] Y. Spanish government
1. oldest villages [D] A. “Mound of Earth…”
2. height of Anasazi culture [H] B. Clovis people
3. Tua-Tah [E] C. San Ildefonso
4. earliest residents of NM [G] D. Taos, Acoma
5. Athabascan [I] E. Taos
6. hunted large game [B] F. Anasazi
7. Nambé [A] G. Sandía people
8. first farmers [J] H. Chaco
9. Po-Woh-Ge-Oweenge [C] I. Apache, Navajo
10. ancestors of Pueblo people [F] J. Cochise people
QUESTIONS and suggestions for additional teaching strategies for New Mexico A BRIEF MULTI-HISTORY. (See the ACTIVITIES section in the LEARNING AND TEACHING GUIDE on our website if you haven’t already.) Adjust the level of material to your students (mid school, high school, college).
1. ASSESSING STUDENT READINESS: Ask students questions like the following: Do you feel knowledgeable in the field of NM history? What kinds of people or historical events interest you? What are your impressions of NM history? Are there “good guys and bad guys”? Who are they and why?
New Mexico history can be broken up into the following periods: Precontact; Spanish, Mexican, American Occupation, Territorial, Statehood. Which period do you think would be the most interesting? Why?
Using the INDEX of NEW MEXICO: A BRIEF MULTI-HISTORY, find all the information possible on the assigned topics below, write it up in report form and deliver it orally to the class.
Using the Index LEVEL A
Agriculture (see also Crops, Drought)
Albuquerque Public Schools
All Indian Pueblo council
Billy the Kid
“Christians are crazy!”
Nina Otero (Warren)
Pottery (Pueblo potters)
Sisters of Charity (of Loretto, of St. Francis)
Slave Code Act of 1859
Society of Bandits
St. Michael’s College
Using the Index LEVEL B
Alice C. Henderson
Hispanic Culture Center
Hispano Chamber of Commerce
General S.W. Kearny
Maps (p. ix)
Padre Martínez of Taos
Protector of the Indians
Tinsmiths (also Tinwork)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
University of New Mexico
University of New Mexico Press
T. Vélez Cachupín
Using the Index LEVEL C
T. B. Catron
Manuel A. Chaves
Court of Private Land Claims
Mabel Dodge (Luhan)
Raids (by hostile Indians)
Santa Fe Trail
Using the Index LEVEL D
ADVANCED RESEARCH SUBJECTS
A. Annotated Bibliography (study the Annotated Bibliography and decide
which books the author of the MULTI-HISTORY might believe are valid and which might be basically propaganda.)
B. Books: report on the BOOKS headings in the MULTI-HISTORY.
C. Land (ownership and related topics)
D. Hall of Fame (organize the selectees by activity/gender/organization, etc.)
E. Society: report on the information in the SOCIETY headings.
F. Statehood (NM’s quest for)
2. Have students read aloud, individually or in chorus, from assigned pages of NEW MEXICO: A Brief Multi-History. [This will tend to prepare them for oral reports.]
Suggested pages for Individual or CHORAL readings:
Have a student, a group of students or the entire class read out loud the following items (the teacher can also select other pages/materials):
1. OUR CONQUERING ANCESTORS…p. iv
2. THERE WAS A TIME…p. xiii)
3. Christopher Columbus…J.A. Crow has written…p. 11
4. Francisco de Vitoria, a Dominican…pages 14-15
5. Doña Eufemia: “Tell me noble soldiers...pages 18-19
6. Official act of possession: “In the name of the most holy Trinity…pages 20-21 (DO NOT assign this reading if it will be construed as “teaching religion.)
7. BUFFALO HUNTING…p. 23
8. OÑATE RESIGSNS…p32
9. “I sing of arms”…p. 37
10. 1634: REPORT…p. 49
11. SOCIETY & CUSTOM…p. 54-55
12. [The office of Protector of the Indians…p. 57]
13. DEFENSE & ARCHITECTURE…p. 94-95
14. SANTA FE FIESTA…p. 99
15. 1723: TRADE...p. 104
16. MILITARY & COMANCHES AT PECOS...p. 112-13
17. IRRIGATION & AGRICULTURE…p. 118
18. MISSION REPORTS…p. 127
19. SANTERO…pages 141-42
20. REPORT ON NEW MEXICO…p. 146
21. SANTERO…p. 165
22. Purpose of the Brotherhood…p. 175
23. SOCIETY…p. 180
24. CUSTOMARY LAW…p. 193
25. FRONTIERSMAN…p. 195
26. SOCIETY: Custom and tradition…p. 211-12
27. August 15: General Kearny…p. 221
28. Acting Governor Juan Bautista Vigil y Alaríd…p. 221-22
29. CONSIRACY CHARGES...227
31. COMANCHERO TRADE...236
33. BLACKS & SOCIAL LEGISLATION...265
34. BUFFALO HUNTING…269
35. CHURCH & SOCIETY…269
36. LAND TITLES…273
37. LAND GRANT CHICANERY…279
39. COMANCHE RESERVATION…305
41. STATEHOOD—ELKINS HANDSHAKE…323
42. LAND LAW…325
43. SANTA FE RING…340
44. RANCHERO LIFESTYLE…379
45. ARCHIVES FIRE…380
46. NEWSPAPER READING…384
49. EDUCATION INIQUITIES…408
51. WOMEN & LAW…416
52. STATEHOOD—R.W. Larson…424
55. RACISM & SOCIETY…437
56. LABOR & ETHNICITY…446
57. INDIAN EDUCATION…448
66. WAR HEROES…496
67. NAVAJO CODE TALKERS…498
68. We Love It Hot…522
71. ATHLETICS & ACADEMICS…602
3. Assign students to make a notebook list of all the names and dates (example: Juan de Oñate, 1550 or 1552—1626) of individuals in the Profile Biographies. [This will give them a structure for the personalities who made New Mexico history. A testing device could be to have students put individuals in their proper century.]
4. Select a Governor from any period of New Mexico history, write a report on what happened during the years of his administration and present the information orally to the class. What implications did this administration have for New Mexico then or now? EXAMPLES:
a. Oñate and the Founding of Hispanic New Mexico;
b. Vargas and the Re-founding of Hispanic New Mexico;
c. Pedro Fermín de Mendinueta: New Mexico on the brink of extinction;
d. Juan Bautista de Anza: New Mexico and the Comanches;
e. Fernando Chacón: Stabilizing New Mexican society;
f. Mexican period governors and the Santa Fe Trade;
g. The three administrations of Manuel Armijo;
h. Charles Bent: first American governor;
i. Henry Connelly and the American Civil War;
j. Lew Wallace and the “Wild West” in New Mexico;
k. Miguel A Otero II and land grant court cases;
l. The Clyde Tingley administration;
m. The three administrations of Ed Mechem;
n. The three administrations of Bruce King…
o. (Add to the list…)
5. Have students pick a favorite number between 1 and 98. Let’s say a student picks “39.” Using the MULTI-HISTORY textbook/reference, assign that student to investigate what happened in New Mexico in the years (or closest year to it) 1639, 1739. 1839, 1939. The student writes up what is discovered and delivers it orally to the class.
6. Create a crossword puzzle with selected words (assigned from a Profile Biography, a specific number of pages in the text, information from a specific Governor’s administration, information on a specific topic or issue, etc.).
7. UNSCRAMBLE the assigned scrambled words (Students may be assigned to do the “scrambling” in order to facilitate this exercise. The intent here is to build vocabulary. This exercise is not intended for use as a testing device. Spanish words should be so labeled. Selected vocabulary must be tailored to student level.)
Examples: odow revacr (wood carver); esebt (beets); [Sp.] locbrieo (cibolero); sruttoi (tourist), etc.
8. Drill NEW MEXICO FACTS (pages582-83)
9. REPORTING LIVE!
Assign students to make a brief (not more than one page) creative presentation as if they were making an on-camera television report. Topics can be items like Trade Fairs (pages 104, 106, 170); Juan de Ye (84, 87); Acequia irrigation/water rights (118, 201); the Comanche Peace and resultant trade (132-137); Birth of the U.S. Cavalry (187); Governor Pile and the Archives (304); New Mexico Demography (89-90, 104-105); Cibolero hunt (329); Arrival of General Kearny in New Mexico; etc.; Creating the skiing industry in New Mexico (521); Creation of “Big Jim” chile (521-22)
10. SEMESTER REPORT: Select a personality (or topic or issue) from New Mexican history and prepare a thorough written and oral report on that person/item. (Use sources beyond the MULTI-HISTORY when necessary.)
(Assess Student Readiness before beginning. Continue drilling vocabulary. Assign specific readings. Utilize the Index for related information.)
1. Assign students to prepare for PANEL DISCUSSIONS (or use the structure of DEBATE or even a court case complete with Judge, Prosecutor, Defense Attorney, and Defendant) on topics like the following (the teacher will add to the list; see the Index for additional or related pages on any specific subject):
JUAN DE OÑATE: Founding Father or brutal Conqueror?
MISSIONARIES: Civilizers or Oppressors? (pages 31-64)
MISSIONARY MARTYRDOM: (pages 45, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53,54, 55, 58, 63, 67, etc.)
FEUDS BETWEEN AUTHORITIES of CHURCH & STATE (pages 39, 40, 41, 45, 51, 60, 98, 117, etc.)
HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF PROTECTOR OF THE INDIANS (see Index)
POPE: Native American Liberator or Tyrant? (64-69)
Aug. 10, 1680: PUEBLO REVOLT or ST. LAWRENCE DAY MASSACRE? (64-69)
DIEGO DE VARGAS: Heroic Leader or Conqueror?
JUAN BAUTISTA DE ANZA: Knight or Frontiersman?
ELFEGO BACA’S GUNFIGHT (351)
TAOS and SANTA FE ART COLONIES (405-408)
Creation of the village of BLACKDOM (408)
Families of PUEBLO POTTERS (see Index)
ARTS & CRAFTS: Tinsmiths (460, 465, 475), Weavers (447) Woodcarvers (453,486
NEWSPAPERS (see Index)
DEATH COMES FOR THE ARCHBISHOP (453)
PUBLIC HEALTH (443, 462, 526, 566, 559)
Discuss/Display the war CARTOONS of BILL MAULDIN (485
FAMILY TRADITIONS (488)
Study: EL CERRITO (489)
BOYS RANCH (505)
E. BOYD / MILLICENT ROGERS (509)
ROSWELL INCIDENT / UFO (510, 530)
CREATION of the SANTA FE OPERA (525)
ASTRONOMY: The VERY LARGE ARRAY (549)
POVERTY in New Mexico (552,555)
PRISONS (355, 558, 586)
Creation of the HISPANIC CULTURE CENTER (560, 584, 590, 606)
Creation of the New Mexican Hispanic Culture Preservation League ( 607)
HALL OF FAME: Interview any person listed (637)
A. Choose a personality from out of New Mexico history and portray that individual in front of class. Suggestions:
B. Have students write and perform a skit on the following topics:
a. The writings of Lewis Garrard and R.E. Twitchell (228-29);
b. The writings of Paul Horgan and Angélico Chávez (249-54);
c. The writings of W.W. H. Davis (259-60);
d. Death Comes for the Archbishop by Willa Cather (453-56)...
3. Let’s play New Mexico TIC-TAC-TOE
(All historical information in this activity is from NAME THE EVENT in the QUESTIONS segment.)
1. PLAYERS: The teacher and eleven students will participate.
a. Two (2) students will act as contestants, one is “X,” the other is “O.”
b. Nine students will form the TIC-TAC-TOE grid by forming three rows of three students per row. Three students will sit in a front line of desks. Three students behind them will half-sit, perhaps resting on the back support of each desk, and three students will stand behind them. This will form the basic grid necessary to play the game.
aa. Each of the nine students will be supplied with cards which have an “X” on them (one “X” per player) and one with an “O” (one “O” per player).
2. The teacher will stand between Contestant “X” and Contestant “O” to read the question. (It is advisable to put all questions on cards. No question should be asked more than once.) When a question is read, one of the Contestants (opportunity will alternate from one Contestant to the other) will pick a student from the Tic-Tac-Toe grid to answer the question.
a. If the Contestant believes the answer given is correct or incorrect, s/he will respond “I AGREE” or “I DISAGREE.”
b. The teacher will inform as to the correct/incorrect answer.
c. If the Contestant was correct, the student in the grid will hold up the letter corresponding to the Contestant, “X” or “O.”
3. When a Contestant achieves a straight line of three “Xs” or three “Os,” that contestant will be declared the winner.
a. If neither Contestant is able to achieve a line of three (Tic-Tac-Toe) then the game will be called a draw.
b. Two other contestants can then be chosen from the rest of the class in order to continue the game.
ADVANCED reports and/or discussions.
Assess students’ level. These reports/discussions are generally for advanced students who can work basically on their own, for enriched classes in high school, or for the college level. Consult the Index but outside sources may have to be utilized.
READ the entire NEW MEXICO: A BRIEF MULTI-HISTORY.
Fray ISIDRO ORDOÑEZ: Moral force or destabilizer of society? (39-40)
INQUISITION: Moral legal system or Star Chamber?
PENITENTES: Devout villagers or religious fanatics?
Governor MANUEL ARMIJO: Patriot or Demagogue?
TEXAN SANTA FE EXPEDITION: Liberators or Invaders?
General S. W. KEARNY: Liberator or Conqueror?
The TREATY OF GUADALUPE-HIDALGO
BISHOP LAMY vs. N.M. NATIVE PRIESTS (Padre Martínez, José M. Gallegos)
OFFICE OF THE SURVEYOR GENERAL
AFRICAN AMERICANS IN AMERICAN NEW MEXICO
RACISM and the HORRELL WAR (316)
LINCOLN COUNTY WAR (322, 332, 342)
COURT OF PRIVATE LAND CLAIMS (375, 410)
The SANTA FE RING
THOMAS B. CATRON
BLUE LAKE (415)
The Struggle for STATEHOOD (see Index)
WARREN A. BECK: Writing History or Propaganda?
LAND FRAUD (see Index; also see related land issues)
RACISM (254, 268, 437, 473, 482, 488, 598)
IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II on New Mexico (496, 497, etc.)
History of RANCHING IN NEW MEXICO
History of the ALIANZA FEDERAL de MERCEDES (529, 531-32, 557, 599
Creation of the VARGAS PROJECT
ERNIE PYLE and his WRITINGS
MOST ADVANCED Individual Research Topics:
COMPARE /CONTRAST History of New Mexico by Villagrá with General History of Virginia by John Smith.
COMPARE /CONTRAST the MISSIONARIES of New Spain to those of New France.
COMPARE /CONTRAST Amerindian Survival in New England and New Mexico.
COMPARE / CONTRAST New Mexico history with that of the other Southwestern states. (See EPIC OF THE GREATER SOUTHWEST below.)
[If you come up with a unique or interesting strategy for teaching New Mexico history please contact us by email.]
VI. Identify/Define/Explain the following:
1. Sandía Man
2. Clovis Man
3. Cochise People
8. Western Civilization
11. Mogollon Culture
12. Chaco Civilization
13. Dark Ages
14. 711 A.D.
17. Abdu-r-Rahman III
19. Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar
21. Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus)
22. Queen Isabel
23. Fray Bartolomé de las Casas
24. Hernán Cortés
26. First university in the Americas
27. Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
28. Seven Cities of Cíbola
29. Bishop Zumárraga
30. Fray Marcos de Niza
31. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
32. Melchior Díaz: one of Coronado’s captains;
33. Pedro Tovar: one of Coronado’s captains;
34. García López de Cárdenas: one of Coronado’s captains;
35. Hernando de Alvarado: one of Coronado’s captains;
36. Hernando de Alarcón: one of Coronado’s captains;
37. Fray Juan de Padilla
38. Pedro de Castañeda
39. Francisco de Vitoria
40. Charles V
41. Bartolomé de Las Casas
42. Francis Drake
43. Rodríguez-Chamuscado Expedition
44. Antonio de Espejo
45. Richard Hakluyt
46. Gaspar Castaño de Sosa
47. Leyva-Gutiérrez Expedition
48. Doña Eufemia
49. Juan de Oñate
50. Juan and Vicente Zaldívar
C. PIONEER SETTLEMENT
51. April 30, 1598:
52. July 11, 1598
53. San Juan de los Caballeros (Knights of St. John)
54. El Camino Real (de Tierra Adentro)
55. First buffalo (bison) hunt
57. Ambush at Acoma
58. Acoma War
60. San Gabriel
61. Jumano War
63. don (doña)
64. Acoma resettled.
65. “Pasó por aquí el adelantado don Juan de Oñate del descubrimiento de la mar del sur a 16 de abril de 1605.”
67. El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de La Mancha.
68. Blue Robes
69. “Missionary field”
70. “supply caravan”
71. ca. 1608
72. History of New Mexico
73. Fray Isidro Ordoñez
74. Mission San Agustín
75. “Rio Grande Blankets” and “footless tube socks”
76. Encomienda system
78. Fray Esteban de Perea
79. Fuente Ovejuna
80. Fray Andrés Juárez
81. Pueblo town government
82. Silver crowned canes
83. La Conquistadora
84. Pueblo agriculture
85. Hispanic agriculture
86. Fray Alonso de Benavides
87. Sor María de Jesús de Agreda
88. “You Christians are crazy!”
89. True Relation of the Great Conversion in New Mexico
90. “Golden Age of Franciscan Missions in NM”
92. NM hairstyles
93. Trade Fair
94. Protector of the Indians
95. Francisco Gomez Robledo and the Inquisition
96. drought and famine
97. Dead Man’s Route
99. Fray Francisco de Ayeta
D. PUEBLO REVOLT/ ST. LAWRENCE DAY MASSACRE
100. Popé and Otermín
101. knotted cords
103. Other leaders with Popé
104. Fray Juan Pío
105. “Death to all Christians!”
106. Petronila de Salas and family
107. Spanish Archives in Santa Fe
108. Fray Juan de Jesús of Jémez
110. Fray Lucas and Fray Juan de Val at Acoma
111. Bernabé Márquez at Los Cerrillos
112. Alonso García
113. “Your god is dead!!”
114. Franciscan Martyrs (21)
115. Pecos Pueblo Church
116. “To your health, Reverend Father.”
117. “And to yours, Excellency.”
118. Otermín’s effort at reconquest.
119. Popé deposed.
120. Anarchy in Pueblo land.
121. Bartolomé de Ojeda
122. Diego de Vargas
123. Spanish Horse
124. Capt. Roque de Madrid
125. Luis and Lorenzo Tupatú
126. Mercurio Volante
127. Recolonization of NM
128. Juan de Ye
129. NM Demography
130. “The Hundred Gentlemen Soldiers from Spain”
131. Españoles Mexicanos
132. Zacatecas-Sombrerete Colonists
133. primo / prima
134. Santa Cruz 1695
135. Rebellion of 1696
136. Antonia Moraga
137. Jacques Grolet
138. Laguna Pueblo
139. Mesilla of San Ildefonso land grant
140. Private Land Grant
141. Community Land Grant
144. Faraón Apaches
145. April 8, 1704
150. Picurís Rescue Mission
151. El Capitán
152. Domingo Romero
153. Felipe Chistoe
154. Santa Fe Fiesta
155. Francisca Gigosa
156. Los Lunas
157. Villasur Expedition
158. Segesser Hide Painting
159. Taos Fair
162. Alcalde Mayor
163. Teniente Alcalde
164. Reglamento de 1729
165. Episcopal Visitations to NM
166. Santiago Roybal
167. Elena Gallegos
168. Miguel de Quintana
170. Pierre and Paul Mallet
173. Comanches and Pecos Pueblo
175. Antonio Fresquis
177. Sheep Ranching
178. Pastores (Borregueros)
180. Partido system
181. Beginning of Santero Period of NM folk art
182. 18th Century Novice
183. “Trampas 12”
184. Clemente Gutiérrez
185. Bernardo Miera y Pacheco
188. Diego de Trujillo
189. Polvadera land grant
190. 1767: NM Christian settlements surrounded
191. Cuerno Verde
192. Josefa Bustamante
193. Comanche raid on El Valle
194. Carlos Fernández
195. Hispanic Population of NM in 1776
197. Domínguez – Escalante Expedition of 1776
198. Fray Andrés García
199. Fray Juan Agustín de Morfi
200. Juan B. De Anza
201. Chief Ecueracapa
202. Chief Toroblanco
203. Comanche Peace
204. Comanche people
206. Comanchero Trade
207. Sarah Ann Horn
208. Symbols of authority
212. Pedro Vial
213. José Mares
214. NM society in 1790
215. Population of NM in 1790
216. Laguna Santero
217. Pedro Antonio Fresquis
218. Captain Taschelnate
219. Antonio José (Father) Martínez
220. San Miguel del Bado land grant
221. Pedro Córdova
222. Don Fernández de Taos land grant
223. Hispanic Women
224. J. Rafael Aragón
225. Juan Candelaria
226. Population of NM in 1799
227. J. Manuel Carrasco
229. Santero Art
230. Rafael Luna
231. Report (1803) by Gov. Chacón
232. Navajos attack Cebolleta (Seboyeta)
233. Jean Batiste Lalande
235. James Purcell
236. Cañon del Río de Chama (San Joaquín land grant)
237. Zebulon M. Pike
238. Bazán brothers Juan and Ignacio Ricardo
239. La Joya de Sevilleta
240. Cebolla, Antonio Sandoval
242. El Lazo de las Animas
243. Trujillo brothers Pedro and Celedón
244. Teodoro Gonzáles
245. Santuario de Chimayó
246. La Joya: founded in 1811
245. Exposición sucinta y sencilla de la provincia del Nuevo Mexico:
246. Mariano Medina
247. (Fr.) José Manuel Gallegos
249. Manuel Lisa
250. Manuel Antonio Chaves
252. José Aragón
253. September 27, 1821
254. “Mountain Men”
255. Treaty of Córdova
256. Town of Las Vegas land grant
257. “Baca Locations”
258. “Foreigners” in NM
259. Francisco X. de Chávez
260. Trade restrictions
261. William Becknell
262. Carlos Beaubien
264. Brothers of Our Father Jesus
266. Hermano Mayor
268. La Cuaresma
269. Semana Santa
271. “Missouri Mules”
272. José Escudero
273. Ceran St. Vrain
274. Manuel Simon Escudero
275. Arroyo Hondo Santero
276. Christopher “Kit” Carson
277. Padre Martínez
278. Taos and Fur Trappers
280. Manuel Armijo
281. George Kendall
283. W.W.H. Davis
284. Debt peonage
285. Placer de Dolores
286. U.S. Cavalry
287.. Old Spanish Trail(s)
288. “Circle the wagons!”
289. Quill Pen Santero
290. Santo Niño Santero
290. Nepomuceno Alario
292. Treaty of Amity and Commerce(1831)
294. Ojeada sobre Nuevo Mexico (A Glimpse at New Mexico)
295. Tierra Amarilla land grant
296. Bent’s Fort
297. Customary Law
299. Mariano Chaves y Castillo
300. J. Francisco Chaves
302. Bishop J. Antonio López de Zubiría
303. Rafael Chacón
304. Printing press
305. El Crepúsculo de la Libertad (The Dawn of Liberty)
306. Felipe Chávez
307. Cuaderno de Ortografía
308. Department of New Mexico
309. Pony Express
310. American traders in Santa Fe
311. Revolt of 1837
312. Trinidad Gabaldón
313. Pecos Pueblo
314. José Cordero
315. Matt Field
316. NM textiles
317. Texan-Santa Fe Expedition of 1841
318. “Texian Invincibles”
319. George W. Kendall
320. Beaubien-Miranda land grant
322. Higinio V. Gonzales
323. Texas Bandits on the Santa Fe Trail
324. Kit Carson and Josefa Jaramillo
325. Gov. M. Chávez: “We are surrounded on all sides
326. Peter Harmony, Nephews and Co.
327. Commerce of the Prairies
328. Lucien B. Maxwell and Luz Beaubien
331. Status of Women in NM
332. Trobadores (Extemporaneous Poets)
335. Peón (peonada)
337. NM Population in 1846
338. James W. Magoffin
339. General Stephen W. Kearny
340. Kearny Code
341. Charles Bent: appointed (1846) by Gen. Kearny as Governor of NM.
342. Susan Magoffin
343. Fort Marcy
344. Solomon Jacob Spiegelberg
346. Manuel A. Chaves charged with Treason
345. Revolt of 1847
348. Fr. Ramon Ortiz
347. Lobo Blanco
348. The New Mexican
348. First American Post Office
349. Native Clergymen
350. New Mexico Territory
351. Report on Conditions in New Mexico:
352. Hispano Merchants
354. La Placita
355. Andricus Trujillo
356. San Luis
357. Lamy and Machebeuf
358. Christmas Pastoral Letter
359. La Academia de Nuestra Señora de la Luz
360. John Greiner
361. Gadsden Treaty of 1853
362. El Gringo, or New Mexico and her People
363. William Pelham
364. E.A. Graves
365. Pueblo Suffrage
367. Commerce on Santa Fe Trail in 1855
368. African Americans in NM
369. Gila Expedition of 1857
370. Land Titles in 1857
371. José Benito Ortega
372. Slave Code Act of 1859
373. Plaza de los Leónes
374. Manuel A. Chaves and Bishop Lamy
377. First Yom Kippur
378. El Millionario
379. Land Grant Chicanery
380. Slave Code Act of 1859 repealed
381. “So Patriotic in Nature”
382. Gen. H.H. Sibley
383. Homestead Act of 1862
384. San Mateo
385. Battle of Valverde (1862)
386. Confederate flag in Santa Fe
387. Battle of Glorieta Pass (1862)
388. California Column
389. Bosque Redondo
390. Giovanni M. Agostini (The Hermit)
391. Stephen B. Elkins
392. San Marcial
394. “Prince of Comancheros”
395. Sisters of Charity
396. Elfego Baca
397. Marian Russell
398. “Buffalo Soldiers”
399. Goodnight-Loving Trail
400. Thomas B. Catron
401. John Chisum
402. Rev. Donato M. Gaspari
403. Navajo Reservation
404. Vicente Romero
405. Capitán Vigil
406. Capitán Corona
407. Gov. William A. Pile (1869-71)
408. Francis Oliver
409. Kwahadis and Kotsotekas Comanches
410. John Becker
411. “The largest individual land holder in the USA”
412. Mora Octagonal Tinsmith
413. Río Arriba Workshop
414. Pablo Abeita
415. John Hittson
416. Spiral Staircase
417. Felipe M. Chacón
418. Horrell War
419. Charles Ilfeld
420. “Broken Promises”
421. Eben Stanley
422. Jean B. Lamy
423. José María Apodaca
424. Flora Langermann Spiegelberg
425. Kwahadi Comanches
426. Reverend F.J. Tolby
427. Santa Fe Ring
428. Lincoln County War
429. Río Abajo Tinsmiths
431. First bar mitzvah in Santa Fe
432. “Elkins Handshake of 1876”
433. Partition Statute
434. Sotero Ortiz
435. Manuel Jesús Vásquez, Cibolero
436. Jesuit College
437. Robert McDonald
438. Atchison Topeka and the Santa Fe Railroad
439. Severino Trujillo
440. Victorio441. Adolph Bandelier
442. Penitente Santeros
444. The Authentic Life of Billy the Kid
445. Land Fraud
446. Mescalero Apache Reservation
447. Miguel Archibeque:
448. Albert B. Fall
449. “Greatest Gun Fight in the West”
450. Isleta Tinsmith
451. Temple Montefiore
452. Dawes Allotment Act
453. “Land Stealing in New Mexico”
454. Adolf Didier
455. Solomon Bibo
456. Fr. Juan B. Railliere
457. Nestor Montoya
458. “Gorras Blancas” White Caps
460. “Sunshine State”
461. “La Banda Lírica”
462. Public Education Law of 1890
463. Mesilla Combed Paint Tinsmith
464. New Mexico Military Institute
465. El Mosquito
466. A New Mexico David and Other Stories
467. El Sol De Mayo
468. El Combate
469. Court of Private Land Claims
470. Eusebio Chacón
471. “Ranchero Lifestyle”
472. Vicente Silva
473. Hispano-American Press Association
474. Aurora Lucero
476. La Prensa Asociada Hispano Americana – The Hispanic American Associated Press
477. Borrego Murder Case
478. “New Mexico and Its Illustrious Men”
479. El Independiente
480. Henry O. Flipper
481. Martin Vigil
482. Albert Fountain
483. Andrew Van der Wagen and wife Effa
484. US v. Sandoval (1897)
485. Miguel “Gillie” Otero II
486. Hayes v. United States (1898)
487. Cosme Herrera
488. Porfirio Gonzales
489. Los Ocho Pintores, The Taos Society of Artists
490. First New Mexico Cavalry
491. Carlos Vierra
492. THE GREASER
493. Alejandro Gallegos
494. “Hispano Homeland”
495. Art Colonies
496. Religious Crimes Code (1900-1920)
498. Jim White
499. Tenos Tabet
500. Felipe Chávez School
501. Alvarado Hotel
502. Blue Lake
503. Women and Law
504. Edgar Lee Hewett
505. Saturnino Baca
506. Priest v. Town of Las Vegas
507. Forty Years as a Legislator, or the Biography of Casimiro Barela
508. Rodríguez v. La Cueva Ranch Co.
509. John W. Brink and wife Bertha
510. January 6, 1912
511. Catron Seat/Fall Seat
512. Chino Copper Co.
513. “The People’s Champion”
514. Policarpio Valencia
515. Smith-Lever Act of 1914
516. “Seasonal Labor”
517. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
518. Alfred V. Kidder
519. Alice Corbin Henderson
520. Pancho Villa
521. José Dolores López
522. Mabel Dodge (Sterne)
523. Santa Fe Fiesta
524. Mary Austin
526. Census of 1920
527. College of St. Joseph
528. Bursum Bill of 1921
529. Severo Jaramillo Weaving Shop
531. Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonial
532. Middle Río Grande Conservancy District
533. Indian Citizenship
534. Obras de Felipe Maximiliano Chacón
535. Poets’ Roundup
536. Revista Ilustrada
537. Santa Fe Indian Detours
538. Santa Cruz Irrigation District
539. Elizabeth DeHuff
541. Celso Gallegos
542. Nicolai Fechin
542. Willa Cather
543. John Collier
544. Francisco Delgado
545. E. (Elizabeth) Boyd
546. University of New Mexico Press
547. Georgia O’Keefe
548. Infant Mortality Rates
549. Mabel Dodge Luhan Memoirs
550. Robert H. Goddard
551. Okies & Arkies
552. Francisco Sandoval
553. Jesús Pallares
554. John Collier
555. “Tewa Basin Study”
556. Discrimination at UNM (1933)
557. Patrociño Barela
558. Lorin Brown
559. “Un-American Activities”
560. Bill Mauldin
561. Congregation Albert
562. Olen E. Leonard
563. Forgotten People: A Study of New Mexicans
564. Angélico Chávez
565. Kirtland Air Force Base
566. 200th Coast Artillery and the 515th Coast Artillery
567. Navajo Code Talkers
568. Manhattan Project
569. NM Boys Ranch
570. Trinity Site
571. Saints & Saintmakers of New Mexico
572. Georgia Lusk
573. Sandía Laboratories
574. Roswell Incident
575. Monastery of Via Coeli
576. Flavia Waters Champe
577. Paddy Martínez
578. Smokey Bear
579. Brother Mathias
580. We Fed Them Cactus
581. NM Chile:
582. Gadsden Museum
583. Santa Fe Opera
584. NM Mortality Rates
585. Hispanics and Poverty
587. Tinker Town Museum
588. UFO Sighting
589. Sister Cities Program
590. Dennis Chávez Statue
591. Tierra Amarilla Court House Raid (1966)
592. Nancy López
593. The Pit: the UNM Sports Arena is completed (1967).
594. N. Scott Momaday
595. Alvarado Hotel
596. Luis R. Rocco
598. Rudolfo Anaya
599. Balloon Fiesta
600. Popular Arts of Spanish New Mexico
601. Sósimo Padilla
602. Hispano Chamber of Commerce
603. Very Large Array (VLA)
604. “Crime Stoppers”
605. Marc Simmons
606. Brotherhood of Hispanic Arts and Artists (La Cofradía de Artes y Artesanos Hispánicos)
607. Tomás Atencio
608. “Worst Radiation Accident in American History”
609. Microsoft Corporation
610. Southwest Hispanic Research Institute
611. Vargas Project
612. Earth First!
613. “This prison is going to blow!”
614. Hispanic Culture Foundation
615. E.A. “Tony” Mares
616. Contemporary Hispanic Market
617. Noches de Cultura – Culture Evenings
618. Hispanic Women’s Council
619. Las Mujeres Hablan: An Anthology of Nuevo Mexicana Writers
620. NM Hispanic Music Association
621. Carlos Lopopolo
622. Astronaut Sidney Gutiérrez
623. Pueblo Nations: Eight Centuries of Pueblo History
624. La Herencia Del Norte
625. Gaming Compacts
626. Bill Richardson
627. Georgia O’Keeffe Museum
628. Loretta Armenta
629. Angel Espinoza
630. Calendar of the Great Southwest: The New Mexico Edition
631. Hispanic Culture Preservation League
633. Rep. Steve Schiff
634. Ed Romero
635. Studying NM History